Flashcards in Nutrition, Digestion and Enzymes Deck (70)
What are carbohydrates, lipids and proteins?
Large molecules which are made up from smaller, more basic units
What chemical elements are in carbohydrates?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
What are the characteristics of monosaccharides?
They are simple, 1 unit sugars which dissolve easily in water
What are examples of monosaccharides?
Glucose and fructose
What are the examples of disaccharides?
Sucrose, lactose and maltose
What are the characteristics of polysaccharides?
Complex molecules used for storage, they don't taste sweet and do not easily dissolve in water. They are large complex carbohydrates made up of many smaller units joined together in a long chain
What are examples of polysaccharides?
Starch, glycogen, cellulose
What chemical elements are in proteins?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen (+ sulphur)
What are proteins made up of?
Long chains of amino acids. The sequence can determine the shape of the protein molecule
What chemical elements make up lipids?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
What are lipids built from?
Fatty acids and glycerol
What is the test for glucose?
You add Benedict's solution/reagent (2cm cubed) tp 2cm cubed of liquefied food (with water as a solvent) and heat in a water bath for 5 minutes, if the test is positive it will form a precipitate
How does the colour of the precipitate change with Benedict's solution?
Blue -> green -> yellow -> orange -> brick red
The higher the glucose concentration the further along this scale the colour of the precipitate will be
What is the test for starch?
Add iodine solution to 2cm cubed of liquefied food and if present then the sample changes from orange brown to blue black however if there is no starch present the solution will stay orange brown
What are good sources of carbohydrates?
Pasta, rice, sugar +
What is the function of carbohydrates?
To provide energy
What are good sources of lipids (fats+oils)?
Butter, oily fish +
What is the function of lipids?
Provide energy, insulation and acts as an energy store
What are good sources of proteins?
Meat, fish +
What is the function of proteins?
Needed for growth and repair of tissue and to provide energy in emergencies
What is a good source of vitamin A?
What is the function of vitamin A?
Helps to improve vision and keep skin and hair healthy
What is a good source of vitamin C?
Oranges and other citrus fruits
What is the function of vitamin C?
Helps cells sticking together in the lining of various organs and is needed to prevent scurvy
What is a good source of vitamin D?
What is the function of vitamin D?
Needed for calcium absorption and prevents rickets
What is a good source of water?
Food and drink
What is the function of water?
Almost every bodily function relies on water. Constant supply needed to replace water lost through urination, breathing and sweating
What is a good source of dietary fibre?