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Flashcards in Nature And Varitey Of Living Organisms Deck (18)
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What are the 5 kingdoms of classification?



What are the characteristics of bacteria?

Microscopic, single celled organisms
Simple cell structure with no nucleus but a single circular chromosome of DNA
Some carry out photosynthesis
Most feed on other living or dead organisms
They have a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm and plasmids


What are the characteristics of protoctists

Single celled and microscopic
Some having chloroplasts and are similar to plant cells
Others are more like animal cells/pathogens


What are the characteristics of fungi?

Not able to carry out photosynthesis
Body is organised in a mycelium (many thread like structures called hyphae)
Some are single celled
Feed by saprotrophic nutrition (extra cellular secretion of enzymes onto food material and absorption of the organic products through active transport or diffusion)
May store carbohydrate as glycogen


What are the characteristics of plants?

Multicellular organisms
Cells contain chloroplasts (organelle that contains chlorophyll- the green pigment that traps light energy)
They have cellulose cell walls
Store carbohydrates as starch or sucrose


What are the characteristics of animals?

Multicellular organisms
Their cells do not contain chloroplasts
They are unable to carry out photosynthesis
No cell walls
Usually have nervous coordination and can move from one place to another
Often store carbohydrate as glycogen


What are the characteristics of viruses?

Small particles (small than bacteria)
Parasitic and can only reproduce inside living cells
They infect every type of living organism
No cellular structure but a protein coat and contain one type of nucleic acid (RNA)


What are examples of bacteria?

Lactobacillus bulgaricus - can be used in the production of yoghurt (rod shaped)
Pneumococcus - the cause on pneumonia (spherical)


What are examples of protoctista?

Amoeba - live in pond water (features like an animal cell)
Chlorella - has chloroplasts (like a plant cell)
Plasmodium - responsible for causing malaria (pathogen)


What are examples of fungi?

Mucor - typical fungal hyphae structure (multicellular)
Yeast - single celled


What are examples of plantae?

Flowering plants - cereals (eg maize)
Herbaceous legumes - eg peas and beans


What are examples of Animalia?

Mammals - eg humans
Insects - eg houseflies and Mosquitos


What are examples of viruses?

Tobacco mosaic virus - causes discolouring of the leaves of tobacco plants
Influenza virus - causes flu
HIV - causes HIV and AIDS


What are the characteristics of all living organisms?

They move
They respire
They are sensitive (respond to changes in the environment)
They control their internal conditions
They grow and develop
They reproduce
They excrete their waste
They require nutrition


What is a pathogen?

Organisms that cause disease - they include fungi, protoctists, bacteria and viruses


What are the levels of organisation in the body?

Organ systems


What are examples of organelles?

Nucleus - Contains the genetic material that controls the cell's activities. It is surrounded by its own membrane
Cell membrane - This membrane forms the outer surface of the cell and controls the substances that go in and out
Cytoplasm - A gel-like substance where most of the cell's chemical reactions happen. It contains enzymes which control these reactions


What organelles do plants have that animals do not?

Chloroplasts - Contain a green pigment called chlorophyll which is used in photosynthesis, which makes food for the plant
Cell wall - a rigid structure made of cellulose. which surrounds the cell membrane. It supports and strengthens the cell
Vacuole - A large organelle that contains cell sap (a weak solution of sugars and salts) which helps to support the cell