Flashcards in Nutritional Assessment Deck (82)
What is the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables/day?
What is the recommended amount of protein per day?
Good vs. bad fats
Good fats = Poly and Monounsaturated fat [sources: seafood, sunflower, corn, olive, soybean, cottonseed oil, walnuts, pine nuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, flaxseed]
Bad fats = saturated and trans fats [sources: animal fats (meat, butter, whole milk), solid fats like margarine, coconut and palm kernel oils]
Describe the mediterranean diet
Plant based — fruits, veggies, nuts, grains, seeds, beans, and olive oil
Eggs, dairy, poultry, and fish are eaten several times per week but the portions are small
Minimal intake of red meat, refined sugar, flour, butter, and fats (except olive oil)
Includes 1-2 glasses of red wine per day
What 2 food groups are the most different in terms of serving size between healthy american-style eating pattern, healthy mediterranean-style eating pattern, and healthy vegetarian eating pattern?
Dairy and protein
Healthy american diet = 3 C dairy/day, 5.5 oz protein/day
Healthy mediterranean diet = 2 C dairy/day, 6.5 oz protein/day
Healthy vegetarian diet = 3 C dairy/day, 3.5 oz protein/day (most of which comes from eggs, nuts, seeds, and soy products)
What nutritional deficiency may result in a strict vegetarian or vegan diet?
A. B12 (cobalamin)
B. B3 (niacin)
D. B1 (thiamine)
E. Folic acid
A. B12 (cobalamin)
[there are no plant sources for B12]
Current recommendations regarding salt intake
Less than 2300 mg/day
What is the DASH diet and its effect on 2 important health conditions?
DASH diet is based on study limiting sodium to 2300 mg/d
Lowered both blood pressure and LDL cholesterol
4 vitamins and minerals required by law to be listed on food labels
What does it mean to be salt/sodium-free?
Less than 5 mg sodium per serving
What does it mean to be very low sodium?
Less than 35 mg sodium per serving
What does it mean to be low sodium?
140 mg sodium or less per serving
What does it mean to be “reduced sodium”?
At least 25% less sodium than the original product
What does it mean to be light in sodium or lightly salted?
At least 50% less sodium than regular product
What does it mean to be “no-salt-added” or “unsalted”?
No salt is added during processing — it does NOT mean there is no sodium in the product
What does it mean to be fat-free?
Less than 0.5 g of fat per serving
[same thing for “trans-fat free” — may still contain up to 0.49 grams which can add up with multiple servings]
What does it mean to be low fat?
3 g of fat or less per serving
What does it mean to be reduced fat or “less fat”
At least 25% less fat than regular produce
PMH and PSH clues to nutritional status
PMH — diet related illnessess (CV disease, DM, HTN), psychiatric disorders, seizure disorders, colitis, end-stage chronic disease (COPD, CKD)
PSH — GI surgery: gastrectomy, bariatric surgery, fistula or wound healing concerns
Medications and allergy-related clues to nutritional status
Antiepileptics, PPIs, supplement use (MVI, herbal remedies)
Allergies: food intolerances (lactose, gluten), true allergies (nuts, seeds, shellfish)
Social history clues to nutritional status
Chronic alcoholism or recreational drugs
Social isolation (divorce, loss of spouse)
Loss of job (food insecurity, homelessness)
PE findings suggestive of possible nutritional deficiency in general
Vitals: BMI assessment
Eyes, tongue, teeth, gums, hair, nails, mental status changes
Changes in skin integrity, loss of subcutaneous fat
Important lab values to assess for possible nutritional deficiency
Integral component of rhodopsin and iodopsin; deficiency is made worse with conditions that have fat malabsorption. Sources include milk, fish oil, liver, eggs, carrots, squash, and greens
Which of the following might lead to vitamin A deficiency?
A. Crohns disease
B. Celiac disease
C. Bariatric surgery
D. Chronic mineral oil use for constipation
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
Diarrhea, dementia, pigmented dermatitis in sun-exposed areas, glossitis, stomatitis, vertigo, and BURNING paresthesias are signs of _____ deficiency
Hyperpigmentation in exposed areas, creases and flexures; megaloblastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, weakness, paresthesias, numbness, ataxia, delirium, atrophic patch tongue, weight loss, and fatigue may indicate ___ deficiency
Fatigue, depression, widespread abnormalities in CT, inflamed gingiva, petechiae, hemorrhage, impaired wound healing, hyperkeratosis, corkscrew hairs, and bleeding into body cavities indicates possible ____ deficiency
Vitamin needed for biosynthesis of bile acids, collagen, and norepinephrine