Nutritional recommendations in asymptomatic animals?
Initially very low sodium was recommended upon auscultation of heart murmur. But this may cause early activation of RAAS, mild sodium restriction is probably best (<100mg/100kcal). Other main goal to achieve or maintain optimal BCS. n-3 fatty acids also may be beneficial.
Nutritional recommendations in mild to moderate CHF?
Primary importance maintaining optimal body condition. Loss of lean body mass multifactorial (anorexia, increased energy requirement, production of TNF and IL-1 [which also cause cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis and have negative inotropic effects]). Anti-inflammatory tx may therefore be beneficial (n-3 fatty acid). Na restriction, without protein restriction (not a renal diet), with severe CHF lowering Na further may help decrease diuretic dose.
Nutritional recommendations for feline DCM?
Most current cases of DCM in cats independent of taurine deficiency. But still recommended to submit levels (plasma and whole blood) and treat empirically while waiting on test resutls.
Nutritional recommendations for canine DCM?
Unlike cats, dogs can endogenously synthesize taurine. But taurine deficiency has been documented in some breeds with DCM, such as American cocker spaniel, Newfoundland, golden retriever. May occur in some breeds due to breed specific requirements or diet (lamb meal and rice and high-fiber or very low protein/low taurine diets).
L-carnitine deficiency role in heart disease?
L-carnitine plays an important role in long-chain FA metabolism. L-carn def reported in a family boxers which is why it has been since supplemented in dogs with DCM. No studies demonstrate benefit in vet med. Problem is heart biopsy needed since plasma concentrations do not reflect myocardial deficiency.