Flashcards in nytt som jag borde kunna Deck (56):
What are the 3 Stages of adulthood and what år gäller det?
(40 – 60/65 years)
Why are there not as many milestone in adulthood stages?
In adulthood you're affected more socially then biologilly so therefor its easier to see patterns of what will happen and happening and not specific behavior.
What are the things that decreases when you get old?
All the changes are usually smooth , slow and steady and you dont notice the pga av det.
muscle strength reduce by 10%
Senses decline from year 20
health decline från middle adulthood and is noticeable in late adulthood.
brain neurons decrees by 2 % every year
Name the five satges of Schaie’s theory of cognitive development
Acquisitive stage is?
(childhood & adolescence): information and skills are learnt for their own sake,
(late teens-early 20/30s):
use what they know to become competent and independent
late 30s-early 60s): concerned with long range goals and practical real-life problems, not how to use all their knowledge but to use it to reach their own goals
(30/40s through middle age): take responsibility for social systems. Try and address social issues, e.g. take part in demonstrations, try to understand how the government works
(late adulthood): focus on purpose of what they do, on why they should learn that
Which memory declines first ?
one of the first to begin showing signs of aging related decline but with moderators
What is Baltes’ gain/loss perspective:
A loss in a particular area does not lead to loss in overall function. It might free up space and energy for other resources and that might improve the functionality
Intimacy vs isolation
young adulthood – they have to deal with intimate close relationships.
How much they are going to stick to their own identity (isolated) or open up to the other person (intimacy)
Generativity vs stagnation
middle adulthood – how are they going to continue their ideas and ways of life when they are no longer there. Focus on childrearing
Integrity vs despair
late adulthood –
where they look at what has happened in their life, succesfull/not?
What could I have done differently?
Challenge to overcome despair and coming to peace with past decisions
Erikson’s theory stage theory is about?
Ego evolves through the resolution of a crisis at each stage
So for every stage gives you a crises so you can evolve
is it better to be on your own that stay in a negative relation?
It is the quality of the relations that are important
the negative effects of negative social relations is greater than the positive effects from positive social relations.
Name two theorys why aging happens?
Wear and tear theory/damage-based theory: aging is a consequence of the body getting worn down due to use, accidents, poor nutrition or inefficient repair mechanisms
Preprogrammed/genetic theory the rate of physical aging is genetically determined- you are going to age it does not matter how well you take care of yourself
Kubler Ross’s stages of dying:
At least two of the stages are experienced by all:
namne the two aging theorys
Disengagement theory: successful aging involves a gradual retreat and withdrawal from many activities. To decide when it is time to focus on themselves as individual. This is why we have retirement, extra benefits for elderly etc.
Activity theory: successful aging involves maintaining interest in activities in late adulthood. Doing things you are still capable of doing
Buss and Plomin’s model
namne the four
Emotionality: the tendency to react with emotional response
Activity: the extent to which the child prefers activity
Sociability: prefer to be with others rather than alone
Impulsivity: act without thinking about the consequences ( cant be used on small children pga behöver cognitiv development)
the child quickly establishes regular routines, is generally good natured and adapts easily (40% of NYLS sample, they thought this was applicable to the population)
Slow to warm up temperament:
the child in inactive and moody and displays mild passive resistance to new routines and experiences, the intensity is not high
The remaining children
unique patterns of temperamental attributes (35%)
Slow to warm up children have problem with?
adjustment issues as they are ignored and neglected by peers, hard to form new friendships and belong to a group
Rothbart’s model of temperament focuses on?
Reactivity (the extent to which a person is likely to respond to a stimuli)
Ability to modulate rectivity (is assessed by time taken to return to homeostasis)
Rothbart’s model of temperamen had six dimensions which?
o Fearful distress
o Irritable distress
o Positive affect
o Activity level
o Effortful control
Saliva concentration of the stress hormone cortisol is higher in ?
Goodness of fit model
Every child has the equal chance to develop if the environment is adapted to the child’s own needs. Parenting styles need to recognize and match with the child’s temperament. Both difficult and slow to warm up children benefit from warm, accepting parenting that makes firm but reasonable demands for mastering new experiences
Language-making capacity (LMC)
children do not start with innate knowledge but have a set of procedures for analyzing the language they hear that supports the discovery of grammatical regularities
Behaviorist Perspective: language
Imitation combines with reinforcement to promote language development. The young children copy their parents and how they speak.
Milestones of language development
Birth - crying
1-2 months -cooing begins
6 months- babbling begins
8-12 months -use of gestures (showing and pointing), comprehension of words appears
10-15 months - first word spoken
18 months - vocabulary spurts start
18-24 months - use of two-word utterances; rapid expansion of understanding of words (adding 20-30 new words every week)
Are milestones are similar across countries and cultures?
Milestones are similar across countries and cultures, but there is always individual differences
Children’s first spoken words usually refer to?
important people, objects that move, familiar actions or outcomes of familiar actions
only applying a word to a specific object, e.g “car” for the child only refers to daddy’s car. All other vehicles are not cars to the child
a word the child applies to many things, e.g. when the child uses the word “dog” to refer to anything that has four legs and is furry.
a single word, that has a lot of different meanings depending on situation e.g. “mama” can mean “you are mamma”, “come here mama” etc.
less important words like ”here”, “the” and “to” etc., is left out of the sentences. Instead the child says; “daddy come”, “more juice”
Mean length of utterance (MLU)
Morpheme = Minimal meaningful unit in language.
Name the three Gesture of speech
(16 months ) – can be used without language. Culturally meaningful, e.g. waving goodbye
(9 months) – indication of a specific instance of an object, e.g. pointing
(2 years) – representing something e.g. walking with fingers
processes auditory input for language and important to the understanding of speech
controls production of speech; lies near motor area that controls mouth and tongue movements
High- vs low-Power distance
the extent to which the members of a society accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. E.g. how much power the parent have over the adolescence
Long term orientation:
what is the extent to which the society is willing to give up short term award in turn for long term benefits
Females rate them self higher in one domine what?
Conduct ( hur man beter sig )
low self-esteem is a risk factor for future depression
low self-esteem is an outcome of depression
identity confusion erikson
Those who fail to achieve a secure identity are faced with identity confusion
Baumrind theory is based on two dimensions?
responsiveness (support, love nurturance)
demands (behavioral control)
Siblings seek distinct domains and carve out separate identities
Less direct competition and rivalry
Response to threat, perceived provocation
High rates of angry reactivity and low frustration tolerance
They want to achieve a specific goal
Low fearfulness and behavioral inhibition
often physical evidence scars, wounds
Acts designed to injure another person
More commonly found with males
Obvious and hidden verbal acts of aggression, e.g. name calling
An indirect or direct, but non-physical method of aggression
not always so straightforward
Found in females, and more common during adolescence
E.g. spreading rumors, passing nasty notes, silent treatment, threatening to end a friendship, getting friends to exclude someone you are mad at, talking behind other’s back
Obvious, deliberate acts of aggression