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Flashcards in nytt som jag borde kunna Deck (56):

What are the 3 Stages of adulthood and what år gäller det?

Early adulthood:
18/19-40 years

Middle adulthood
(40 – 60/65 years)

Late adulthood


Why are there not as many milestone in adulthood stages?

In adulthood you're affected more socially then biologilly so therefor its easier to see patterns of what will happen and happening and not specific behavior.


What are the things that decreases when you get old?

All the changes are usually smooth , slow and steady and you dont notice the pga av det.

muscle strength reduce by 10%
Senses decline from year 20

health decline från middle adulthood and is noticeable in late adulthood.

brain neurons decrees by 2 % every year


Name the five satges of Schaie’s theory of cognitive development

Acquisitive stage
Achieving stage
Responsible stage
Executive stage
Reintegrative stage


Acquisitive stage is?

(childhood & adolescence): information and skills are learnt for their own sake,


Achieving stage

(late teens-early 20/30s):
use what they know to become competent and independent


Responsible stage

late 30s-early 60s): concerned with long range goals and practical real-life problems, not how to use all their knowledge but to use it to reach their own goals


Executive stage

(30/40s through middle age): take responsibility for social systems. Try and address social issues, e.g. take part in demonstrations, try to understand how the government works


Reintegrative stage

(late adulthood): focus on purpose of what they do, on why they should learn that


Which memory declines first ?

Episodic memory:

one of the first to begin showing signs of aging related decline but with moderators


What is Baltes’ gain/loss perspective:

A loss in a particular area does not lead to loss in overall function. It might free up space and energy for other resources and that might improve the functionality


Intimacy vs isolation

young adulthood – they have to deal with intimate close relationships.

How much they are going to stick to their own identity (isolated) or open up to the other person (intimacy)


Generativity vs stagnation

middle adulthood – how are they going to continue their ideas and ways of life when they are no longer there. Focus on childrearing


Integrity vs despair

late adulthood –

where they look at what has happened in their life, succesfull/not?

What could I have done differently?

Challenge to overcome despair and coming to peace with past decisions


Erikson’s theory stage theory is about?

Ego evolves through the resolution of a crisis at each stage

So for every stage gives you a crises so you can evolve


is it better to be on your own that stay in a negative relation?

It is the quality of the relations that are important
the negative effects of negative social relations is greater than the positive effects from positive social relations.


Name two theorys why aging happens?

Wear and tear theory/damage-based theory: aging is a consequence of the body getting worn down due to use, accidents, poor nutrition or inefficient repair mechanisms

Preprogrammed/genetic theory the rate of physical aging is genetically determined- you are going to age it does not matter how well you take care of yourself


Kubler Ross’s stages of dying:

At least two of the stages are experienced by all:



Successful aging
namne the two aging theorys

Disengagement theory: successful aging involves a gradual retreat and withdrawal from many activities. To decide when it is time to focus on themselves as individual. This is why we have retirement, extra benefits for elderly etc.

Activity theory: successful aging involves maintaining interest in activities in late adulthood. Doing things you are still capable of doing


Buss and Plomin’s model
namne the four

Emotionality: the tendency to react with emotional response

Activity: the extent to which the child prefers activity

Sociability: prefer to be with others rather than alone

Impulsivity: act without thinking about the consequences ( cant be used on small children pga behöver cognitiv development)


Easy temperament:

the child quickly establishes regular routines, is generally good natured and adapts easily (40% of NYLS sample, they thought this was applicable to the population)


Slow to warm up temperament:

the child in inactive and moody and displays mild passive resistance to new routines and experiences, the intensity is not high


The remaining children

unique patterns of temperamental attributes (35%)


Slow to warm up children have problem with?

adjustment issues as they are ignored and neglected by peers, hard to form new friendships and belong to a group


Rothbart’s model of temperament focuses on?

Reactivity (the extent to which a person is likely to respond to a stimuli)

Ability to modulate rectivity (is assessed by time taken to return to homeostasis)


Rothbart’s model of temperamen had six dimensions which?

o Fearful distress

o Irritable distress

o Positive affect

o Activity level

oAttention span/persistence

o Effortful control


Saliva concentration of the stress hormone cortisol is higher in ?

shy children


Goodness of fit model

Every child has the equal chance to develop if the environment is adapted to the child’s own needs. Parenting styles need to recognize and match with the child’s temperament. Both difficult and slow to warm up children benefit from warm, accepting parenting that makes firm but reasonable demands for mastering new experiences


Language-making capacity (LMC)

children do not start with innate knowledge but have a set of procedures for analyzing the language they hear that supports the discovery of grammatical regularities


Behaviorist Perspective: language

Environmental influences
Imitation combines with reinforcement to promote language development. The young children copy their parents and how they speak.


Milestones of language development

Birth - crying

1-2 months -cooing begins

6 months- babbling begins

8-12 months -use of gestures (showing and pointing), comprehension of words appears

10-15 months - first word spoken

18 months - vocabulary spurts start

18-24 months - use of two-word utterances; rapid expansion of understanding of words (adding 20-30 new words every week)


Are milestones are similar across countries and cultures?

Milestones are similar across countries and cultures, but there is always individual differences


Children’s first spoken words usually refer to?

important people, objects that move, familiar actions or outcomes of familiar actions



only applying a word to a specific object, e.g “car” for the child only refers to daddy’s car. All other vehicles are not cars to the child



a word the child applies to many things, e.g. when the child uses the word “dog” to refer to anything that has four legs and is furry.



a single word, that has a lot of different meanings depending on situation e.g. “mama” can mean “you are mamma”, “come here mama” etc.


Telegraphic speech

less important words like ”here”, “the” and “to” etc., is left out of the sentences. Instead the child says; “daddy come”, “more juice”


Mean length of utterance (MLU)

Morpheme = Minimal meaningful unit in language.


Name the three Gesture of speech

Convential gestures

(16 months ) – can be used without language. Culturally meaningful, e.g. waving goodbye

Deictic gestures

(9 months) – indication of a specific instance of an object, e.g. pointing

Iconic gestures

(2 years) – representing something e.g. walking with fingers


Wernicke’s area:

processes auditory input for language and important to the understanding of speech


Broca’s area:

controls production of speech; lies near motor area that controls mouth and tongue movements


High- vs low-Power distance

the extent to which the members of a society accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. E.g. how much power the parent have over the adolescence


Long term orientation:

what is the extent to which the society is willing to give up short term award in turn for long term benefits


Females rate them self higher in one domine what?

Conduct ( hur man beter sig )


Vulnerability model

low self-esteem is a risk factor for future depression


Scar model

low self-esteem is an outcome of depression


identity confusion erikson

Those who fail to achieve a secure identity are faced with identity confusion


Baumrind theory is based on two dimensions?

responsiveness (support, love nurturance)

demands (behavioral control)


Sibling deidentification

Siblings seek distinct domains and carve out separate identities

Less direct competition and rivalry


Reactive aggression

Response to threat, perceived provocation

High rates of angry reactivity and low frustration tolerance


Proactive aggression

Threat, provocation.
They want to achieve a specific goal

Low fearfulness and behavioral inhibition


Physical aggression

often physical evidence scars, wounds

Acts designed to injure another person

More commonly found with males


Verbal aggression

Obvious and hidden verbal acts of aggression, e.g. name calling


Relational aggression

An indirect or direct, but non-physical method of aggression

not always so straightforward

Found in females, and more common during adolescence

E.g. spreading rumors, passing nasty notes, silent treatment, threatening to end a friendship, getting friends to exclude someone you are mad at, talking behind other’s back


Overt aggression

Obvious, deliberate acts of aggression

physical, verbal


Covert aggression

Hidden acts of aggression, e.g. exclusion