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Flashcards in Olika frågor Deck (112):
1

What are the four attachment styles associated with type A,B,C, D babies

A: Insecurely attached, avoidant type ca 20%

B: Securely attached ca 60-70 %

C: Insecurely attached , resistant type 10%

D: Insecruely attached, disorganized types

2

Type A

A: Insecurely attached, avoidant type ca 20%

Avoidance in reunions,

show less overt distress in separations,

Caregiver who is rejecting

3

Type B

B: Securely attached ca 60-70
More positive towards mother,

Usually distressed in separations, but able to be calmed and return to baseline levels of play,

Caregiver who is emotionally available, sensitive and supportive

4

Type C

C: Insecurely attached , resistant type 10%,

Highly distressed in separations,

Seek mother at point of reunion,

Not easily calmed,

may not want to go to the base line point of play because they are too much distress after separation

Inconsistent parenting


5

D: Insecruely attached, disorganized types

kind of a mix between avoidant and resistant)

At reunion, these infants show confused
Engage in odd behaviors

Worst type of parenting, child abuse or neglect is commonly found

6

what is a indication of an infants level of rhythmicity

Consistency of daily sleeping schedule

7

How the infant reacts in new situations

Approach /withdrawal

8

The Structure of Temperament is?

Thomas and Chess’s model of temperament, consisting of nine dimensions and 3 profiles, easy, difficult and slow to warm up children.

9

Name the 9 Dimensions of structure of temperament

Activity level,
Rhythmicity,
Distractibility
Approach/withdrawal
Adaptability

Attention span and persistence

Intensity of reaction

Threshold of responsiveness

Quality of mood

10

Degree of cooperativeness is what Dimension?

Adaptability, Ease with which child adapts to changes in the
environment, such as sleeping or eating in a
new place

11

Activity level

Ratio of active periods to inactive ones

12

Distractibility

Degree to which stimulation from the
environment alters behavior—for example,
whether crying stops when a toy is offered

13

Threshold of
responsiveness

Intensity of stimulation required to evoke a
response

14

Mr.johansson brought 3 year old Elsa to day care. He explained to the teacher that Elsa was rather sleepy this morning because she did not go to bed until 2 am . the teacher asked why? And mr Johansson replied “ oh we don’t like to put limits on our children-they need to experience life to the fullest. We play games and she goes to sleep when she gets tired. “ is sounds as if mr Johansson is an _____________ parent

Indulgent-permissive -

Is warm but overindulgent or
inattentive

Is lax in behavioral control: Makes few or
no demands for mature behavior

Permits the child to make many decisions
before the child is ready

15

Name the four Child-Rearing Styles

Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, Uninvolved

16

Authoritative Child-Rearing Style

Is warm, responsive, attentive, patient, and sensitive to the child’s needs

Engages in adaptive behavioral control:
Makes reasonable demands for mature
behavior and consistently enforces and explains them

Permits the child to make decisions in accord with readiness.
Encourages the child to express thoughts,
feelings, and desires

When parent and child disagree, engages in
joint decision making when possible

17

Authoritarian Child-Rearing Style

Is cold and rejecting

Makes decisions for the child. Rarely listens to the child’s point of view

Engages in coercive behavioral control:
Makes excessive demands for mature
behavior, using force and punishment

18

Uninvolved

Is emotionally detached and
withdrawn

Is lax in behavioral control: Makes few or
no demands for mature behavior

Is indifferent to the child’s decision making
and point of view

19

All of the followings are true regarding the timing and tempo of puberty EXCEPT

A) there are ethnic differences in the timing of puberty

B) The tempo of puberty refers to the rate at which maturation occurs

C) there is a moderate relationship between the timing and tempo of puberty

D) the two most important environment influences are nutrition and health

C) there is a moderate relationship between the timing and tempo of puberty

20

The Convoy model concerns ?

A) social networks

B) Retirement decisions

C) Optimization of performance by experience

D) spirituality

A) social networks

In the social convoy model of social relations, individuals go through life embedded in a personal network of individuals from whom they give and receive social support

21

Are there sex differences in self-esteem during adolescence ?

YES.
Boys have higher self-esteem in
1. physical appearance and
2. atlehtic abilities and also in
3.academic self-esteem

But girls do score higer on language art self-esteem

22

Michele is a 38 year old woman who works as a teacher. She is married to Mark, a 40 year old engineer. Mark and Michele have two children, Lisa and Stuart aged 9 and 7. Using Erikson’s theory, predict and explain the conflict that Michele could have faced during the period of young adulthood

intimacy versus isolation.

Young adults establish
intimate relationships.

Some individuals cannot form close bonds
because of earlier disappointments, And they become/ remain isolated.

23

Michele is a 38 year old woman who works as a teacher. She is married to Mark, a 40 year old engineer. Mark and Michele have two children, Lisa and Stuart aged 9 and 7. Using Erikson’s theory, predict and explain the conflict that Michele is likely to face in middle adulthood.

Generativity versus stagnation

Generativity means giving
to the next generation through child rearing, caring for
others, or productive work. The person who fails in these
ways feels an absence of meaningful accomplishment.

24

Explain what the results of Harlow and Zimmeran’s study suggest about infant attachment ( apan som inte hade en mama)

The resultats suggest that parant infant attachment is base on more the satisfaction of hunger.

The monkey preferred the cloth thing over the hard steel thing with the feeding bottle.

25

How might one explain sensitive periods of language development in relation to the disturbing case history of Genie?

Its almost impossible to test the concept of a sensitiv period because we cant isolate a child like that.

But in the case of genie she was never able to develop proficient language level (skickligt språk nivå) and it remained largely telegraphic

26

Describe the characteristics of Rejected aggressive children

1. Rejected aggressive children: larges subtype, shows high rates of conflict, physical and relational aggression and hyperactive, inattentive and impulsive behavior

27

Describe the characteristics of Rejected withdrawn children

are passive and socially awkward.

28

Which are the two distinct subgroups of rejected children.

Rejected aggressive children

Rejected –withdrawn children

29

Can difficult temperament be adaptive in certain circumstances? Explain reasons for your answer

yes it could, we have the exempel of the studie done in a African country where they suffered from a drought and 6 out of 7 non difficult dvs easy children died and the diffuclut children didn’t. So in this case you could say the difficult children demanded more of everything , water, food, attention and that made the more prone to survive

30

In Eddy’s class, some kids list him as one of their three best friends, but other kids list him as one of their least favourites. Eddy’s popularity classification would most likely be?

A) Popular
B) Rejected
C) Neglected
D ) controversial

D - controversial where he is both liked and disliked but get a lot of votes.

31

Sociometric status
Namne the 5 type of popularity classification

1. Popular kids
2. Rejected kids
3. Controversial kids
4. Neglected kids
5. average kids.

32

Which is the least stable one and the most stable popularity classification

The least stable one is the controversial and the most stable one is the rejected

33

Jack is fun to be around but never takes anything seriously. He has not decided to go to college or to get a meaningful job. He has no close friendships and has not had serious
romatic relationships. He seems happy to just live day to day without thinking of such matters. Jack is probably in which stage?

A) Identity achievement
B) Identity foreclosure
C) Identity diffusion
D) Identity moratorium

C) Identity diffusion

lack of both exploration and commitment.

Avoid personal decisions,

hopelessness about the future,
antisocial acts

34

Marcia’s identity statuses , namn the four.

Identity diffusion

Identity foreclosure

Identity moratorium

Identity achievement:

35

Identity foreclosure:

When you accept an already made identity from authority

commitment in the absence of exploration

internalize the values of others without deliberate evaluation

36

Identity moratorium

Exploration without having reached commitment. Information-gathering cognitive style, higher self-esteem

37

Identity achievement

Commitment to values, beliefs, and goals following a period of exploration. Information-gathering cognitive style, higher self-esteem

38

Individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation that occur early in life refer to the_____ model of temperament

Rothbart model of temperament

39

Sara works in Sweden as computer programmer. She travelled to Sri Lanka since her company was collaborating with a sir Lankan company. She found people in Sri Lanka were very assertive in their daily lives. She thought the way of life in Sweden was much better since people were more relaxed about all aspects. Which of the following phenomenon was she demonstrating?

Ethnocentrism

Tendency to hold one’s own group as a standard, seeing it as superior to others (self-serving bias). This is not something we can avoid, but what we can do is being aware that it does happen and then try to deal with it

40

Harry is 67 year old man working as a senior executive in an automobile manufacturing company. He has been employed in the same company for the past 32 years and has been given many promotions to come to the position that he is in today. Last week, after a board meeting, the management decided that harry is to take over leadership for a new project, which was very important for the company. The client for this new assignment was pharmaceutical company. Harry had no experience dealing with pharmaceutical. Hence, he had to learn a lot of information about pharmaceuticals, familiarize himself with the working of the new client company and use this information to complete the project for his own company.

Based on research on intelligence and problem solving in adulthood, predict harry’s performance on this project and give reasons for your predictions

I think harry might do good on this project due to that he has been getting a lot of promotions before and seems very dedicated to his job. But harry is in his late adulthood and according to schaies lifespan stages harry is in reintegrative stage and has to focus on a purpose of the project. But im not going to lie , harry is old and and his IQ is starting to decres but also perceptual speed and reasoning. Its going to be harder then it would have been in is 50s but I think he will mange.

41

Harry 67 years, new project about pharmaceuticals and new client

taking a cross cultural perspective, define the etic and emic approach identify one etic and one emic element in the example above

Etic is when you try to find elements that are universal in multiple cultures in this case it would be him having to learn alot about pharmaceuticals.

Emic is the sudy of a particular culture and in this exemple it would be him familiarizing himself with the new client

42

Some psychological principles are universal, and some culture specific explain EMIC

Involves study of a particular culture (whatever makes sense for that culture. Not interested in other cultures. Can be cross cultural if you are looking at differences)

43

Some psychological principles are universal, and some culture specific explain ETIC

Etic approach: investigates characteristics of multiple cultures (elements that can be identified as universal)

44

Describe three fundamental theoretical approaches that offer insights into how children learn language

Empiricist : Language is learned ,( nurture) we are born as blank sheet of paper and the environment makes use learn language

Nativist prespetiv : (natur) we are pre wired to learn language because we start babaling at age 4 moths. There is a sensitive period where language most be learned. All children have LAD language acquisition device. It’s a innate system that helps language (combining words and to to understand sentences.)

Interactionist: language is both natur and nurture, we have inborn tendency but we also learn by the enviormment ex conditioning.

45

Wenda and John are worried about their 10 months old son, Kevin, who has been described as having a “difficult” temperament. Describe what Thomas and chess mean by difficult temperament and use the concept of “goodness of fit” to explain how the parents can ensure the best possible parenting for Hugo.

Thomas and chesss had 9 dimensions of temperament and depending on how much or how little the child was in each dimension the could fit in in one of 3 temprament profiles.
if kevin is a difficult child. He would have irregular daily rutins, adapts slowly to new things and often responds negatively and intensliy to them. The goodness of fit model is when the childs temperament and environmental pressure is in harmony. So in hugos case it would be good if his parents are warm and accepting but when making demands for hugo to experience new things they have to be firm and resnabole.

46

. During the first year, babies signal their emotional state through facial expressions, vocalizations and gestures. With development the clarity and specificity of the emotional expressions increase gradually and provides better information about the baby´s internal state. Between the age of 18 months to 4 years, children´s emotional understanding and expressions grow to include more complex emptions like embarrassment and shame. Which statement is correct regarding complex emotions?



A) Complex emotions are universal and their later emergence depend on the development of motor control systems of face musculature

B) Complex emotions does not involve cognitively complex responses but is learned through classical conditioning

C) The development of theory of mind does influence the expression and understanding of basic emotions but NOT complex emotions

D) Complex emotions require the development of self-awareness/self-consciousness and instructions from adults

D) Complex emotions require the development of self-awareness/self-consciousness and instructions from adults

47

Emotional expressions have communicative value and young infants require help from their caregivers to down regulate emotional arousal. When infants´ cognitions and motor skills develop they also use their parents´ emotional expressions to guide their exploratory behaviour and their responses. This type of behaviour is called:

A) Joint attention
B) Shared gaze
C) Emotional Responsiveness
D) Social referencing

D) Social referencing


Social referencing: is a guide for children to know how to behave in different situation they do this by checking how the caregivers emotional response is to that thing or the person.

Joint attention: is when a child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver, who often labels it. Good for language development.

48

Which of the following is a true statement about the stability of temperament?

A)Temperament by definition is merely a style exhibited during infancy, and thus does not persist into childhood

B) All temperamental dimensions are stable from the prenatal period into infancy

C) Some aspects of temperament tend to be more stable than others

D) No aspects of temperament are stable from the prenatal period into infancy

C) Some aspects of temperament tend to be more stable than others

49

Longitudinal studies of shyness in children suggest that:

A) Children identified at age 2 as being highly shy tended to show physiological signs of arousal in new situations even six years later

B) Few children identified as highly shy at age 2 showed any unusual signs of shyness in later childhood

C) Extreme shyness is most likely due to socialization

D) Shyness is stable over childhood

A) Children identified at age 2 as being highly shy tended to show physiological signs of arousal in new situations even six years later

50

The original goal of the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) was to:

A) Determine the impact of parenting styles on children´s long-term development

B) Assess the impact of major life events on personality formation

C)Predict children´s long-term psychological adjustment by identifying potential problems early on

D)Establish the genetic basis of personality

C)Predict children´s long-term psychological adjustment by identifying potential problems early on

51

Thomas and Chess´ longitudinal research of what happens to young children classified as having a difficult temperament found that:

A) The majority of those who displayed temperamental difficulties during early childhood showed no evidence of these difficulties by early adulthood

B) Many children were diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder

C)Many children were diagnosed with conduct disorder

D)The research was flawed, and no evidence is available concerning long-term effects

A) The majority of those who displayed temperamental difficulties during early childhood showed no evidence of these difficulties by early adulthood

52

How an individual THINKS about and characterizes him or herself is referred to as:

A)Self-esteem

B)Self-consciousness

C)Self-image stability

D)Self-conception

D)Self-conception

Self-concept, the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is.

53

In comparison with the self-concepts of young children, adolescent self-concepts are more:

A) Abstract

B) Concrete

C) Global

D) Differentiated

A) Abstract

54

According to Erik Eriksson, following the formation of an identity, the young adult is faced with the psychosocial crisis:

A) Industry vs. inferiority

B) Integrity vs. despair

C) Intimacy vs. isolation

D) Trust vs. Mistrust

C) Intimacy vs. isolation



Trust vs. Mistrust - barn 1 år


Industry vs. inferiority- 6 -11 år

Integrity vs. despair - OLD AGE

55

Who developed the scheme for determining an adolescent´s identify status?

A) Erik Eriksson

B) James Marcia

C) Suzan Marter

D) Jean Phinney

B) James Marcia

56

“A set of beliefs about what it means to be male or female with regard to psychological traits, attitudes, social relations and occupational interests” is the definition of:

A) Gender identity

B) Gender typing

C)Gender role

D)Gender stereotype

D)Gender stereotype

57

What is the BEST explanation for why young children (pre-schoolers) fail to understand that traits and behaviours that are stereotypically associated with being a boy or a girl don’t determine the person´s sex? An example of this is as follows: “All boys have short hair, I have short hair and I´m a boy, Anna has short hair and therefore he must be a boy.”

A) They fail at transdeductive reasoning

B) Their working memory has yet to develop

C) Their Theory of Mind is incomplete

D) Their metacognitive strategies are limited

A) They fail at transdeductive reasoning



A transdeductive resoning Is when you connect two thing that has nothing to do with echother. Like girls have long hair. Or that if a boy wears pink he has to be a girl.


58

Explain working memory

Working memory : is your cognitive system that has limited capacity and is responsible for temporarily holding information so it can be processed.

59

Explain metacognitive strategies

är a method used to help students undersatand the way they learn, in other words, it means processes designed for students to think about think.

60

Theory of Mind is

Theory of Mind: is your ability to understand the diffrences between how others think and how you think.

61

Research show that children who grow up in families where caregivers are less gender stereotyped in their activities and have gender stereotypical beliefs that are more flexible:

A) Have less rigid gender stereotypes and are more often involved in gender atypical activities

B) Have less rigid gender stereotypes but rarely engage in gender atypical activities

C) Still have rigid gender stereotypes but are more often involved in gender atypical activities

D) Still have rigid gender stereotypes and rarely engage in gender atypical activities

Have less rigid gender stereotypes and are more often involved in gender atypical activities

62

An important aspect of Lawrence Kohlberg´s gender identity theory is gender consistency. How does the understanding of gender consistency influence children´s gender stereotyped beliefs and/or activities?

A) Identification with one´s own gender group increases

B) Gender appropriate behavior emerges

C) Gender stereotypes increases

D) Gender stereotype flexibility increases

D) Gender stereotype flexibility increases

63

Lawrence Kohlberg´s gender identity theory innehåller vilka tre?

Gender labaling
Gender stability
Gender constancy

64

Gender constancy

late preschool. Children understand that you’re a boy or a girl even if you change you hair och change clothes.

65

Gender stability

Older preschool children understand the permanence of sex, that it cant change over time. But they still think that changing your hair to a boy or girl style , makes you that gender.

66

Gender labaling

preschool children label their own and others sex correctly. But when asked a girl if she can be a daddy when she grows up she can answer yes.

67

Chomsky suggested that are born with a mechanism that allows their brain to analyse the language they hear and to figure out its rules. What is the mechanism called?

LAD - language acquisition devices

68

Describe any two limitations of the nativist perspective?

1. It lackes comprehensiveness and the theory dose ot regard childrens cognitive capacity as important. Despite( även fast) that cognitive development is importetnt for childrens early vocabulary growth

2.The assumption that grammatical knowlge is innatelt (medfödd) determined does not fit with certain observations of launguge development.

69

Adam, an older man, is looking back on his life with regret. He feels sad and that he has “wasted his life” and does not have time to start over. Which of Eriksson´s stages is he most likely in?

A) Intimacy vs. isolation

B) Ego integrity vs. despair

C)Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

D)Initiative vs. guilt

B) Ego integrity vs. despair

70

Anna is 81 years old. She realizes that her time and energy is limited. As a consequence, she chooses to spend less time with causal acquaintances and more time with close friends and family. Which theory is her behavior consistent with?

a) Activity theory

B) Disengagement theory

C) Socioemotional selectivity theory

D) Continuity theory

C) Socioemotional selectivity theory


Socioemotional selectivity theory is a life-span theory of motivation. The theory maintains that as time horizons shrink, as they typically do with age, people become increasingly selective, investing greater resources in emotionally meaningful goals and activities.

71

The distinction between fluid and crystalized abilities may be used to summarize age differences in cognitive performance (i.e. from early to late adulthood). Which of the following applies best:

A) Tests of fluid and crystalized abilities both show pronounced negative age differences

B) Tests of crystalized but not fluid abilities show pronounced negative age differences

C) Tests of fluid but not crystalized abilities show pronounces negative age differences

D) Tests of fluid and crystalized abilities do not show any pronounced negative age differences

C) Tests of fluid but not crystalized abilities show pronounces negative age differences

72

Studies of cross-sectional age differences and studies of longitudinal age changes in cognitive abilities seem to yield results that differ in regard to the age of onset of age-related decline in major cognitive functions (e.g. episodic memory). What is a likely reason for this?
A)Cross-sectional aging patterns reflect cohort differences, whereas longitudinal aging patterns reflect period effects

B) Cross-sectional aging patterns reflect both age and cohort differences, whereas longitudinal studies reflect age-related changes

C) Cross-sectional aging patterns reflect age-related changes, whereas longitudinal studies reflect both age and cohort effects

D) Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns both reflect a mixture of cohort and age-related effects

B ) Cross-sectional aging patterns reflect both age and cohort differences, whereas longitudinal studies reflect age-related changes


Cohort refers to people of the same age and different cohort is to compare people of different ages. And longitud studies are mad to se how longterm effects appears.

73

According to one theoretical notion some older adults reach a stage characterized by lowered levels of materialism and rationalism and a changed notion of the self. This is referred to as:

A) Continuity

B) Disengagement

C) Gerotransendence

D) Autonomy

C) Gerotransendence

refers to when old age comes along the person can change values and how they think of life from a rationell and materialism view to a more spirituell view.

74

Social referencing is an important aspect in infant´s exploratory behaviours. What is the best definition of social referencing?

A) The reliance on others emotional reactions for guidance in situations of insecurity

B) The imitation of others emotional reaction in unknown situations

C) The understanding of the emotional tone in another person´s voice

D) To react to others emotional signals

A The reliance on others emotional reactions for guidance in situations of insecurity


social referencing is when babies are faced with unfamiliar people objects or events they pay close attention to the cargivers respons so they can use it as at guide on how to act or respons.

75

In the strange situation procedure (SSP), when the attachment figure returns, the avoidant (type A) infant generally reacts by:

A)Showing little interest in the attachment figure

B)Being positive and happy to see the attachment figure

C)Using the attachment figure to calm down

D)Being angry and showing distress

A)Showing little interest in the attachment figure

76

The three early behavioral styles identified by Thomas & Chess were:

A)Sanguine, melancholic, choleric

B)Easy, difficult, slow-to-warm-up

C)Secure, avoidant, ambivalent

D)Emotional, sociable, inhibited

B)Easy, difficult, slow-to-warm-up

77

.“EAS” in Plomin´s classification of temperament refers to:

A)Emotionality, activity and sociability

B)Excitability, appeasement and security

C)Excitability, arousal and self-regulation

D)Emotionality, arousal and self-regulation

Emotionality, activity and sociability

78

By what procedure are babies assigned to one of the three behavioral styles established by Thomas and Chess?

A) Trained raters observe the infant in home and laboratory settings

B) Parents interact with their infants in the Strange Situation Procedure

C) Observations of babies in a range of situations are supplemented with physiological measures associated with stress reactions

D) Parents participate in interviews and complex questionnaires about their infants

C) Observations of babies in a range of situations are supplemented with physiological measures associated with stress reactions

79

.Billy, at 12 months, rules his household. Although he does not maintain a predictable schedule himself, he insists everything else in the world remain constant including his bedding, eating utensils, and even the shoes he wears. He reacts violently to new babysitters, and with extreme agitation when doing something he enjoys, such as rough-and-tumble play with his uncle. Based on the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS, Thomas & Chess) classification scheme, Billy is BEST described as:

A) Easy

B) Inhibited

C) Slow-to-warm-up

D) Difficult

D) Difficult

80

.Research on the physiological bases on temperament has demonstrated that which of the following are associated with temperament?

A) Heart rate and pupil dilation, but not blood pressure

B) Pupil dilation and cortisol, but not heart rate, blood pressure and skin surface temperature

C) Heart rate, cortisol, pupil dilation, blood pressure and skin surface temperature

D) Neither heart rate, cortisol, pupil dilation nor blood pressure and skin surface temperature

C) Heart rate, cortisol, pupil dilation, blood pressure and skin surface temperature

81

Variations in “Effortful Control” are evident in:

A) How effectively a child can focus and shift attention, inhibit impulses and manage negative emotions

B) Regularity of body functions, such as sleep, wakefulness, hunger and excretion

C) Ease with which a child adapts to changes in the environment, such as sleeping or eating in a new place

D) Wariness and distress in response to intense or novel stimuli, including time to adjust to new situations

A) How effectively a child can focus and shift attention, inhibit impulses and manage negative emotions


Effortful Control is when you supress a dominant and reactive respons in order to react in a more adaptive and acceptable way

82

Which identity status has been linked with the healthiest psychological and social development?

A) Identity diffusion

B) Identity moratorium

C) Identity foreclosure

D) Identity achievement

D) Identity achievement

83

Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a mechanism that allows children´s brains to analyse the language they hear and figure out its rules. This mechanism is hypothesized to be:

A) Learning through social interactions

B) Something that we are born with (innate)

C) A combination of social and genetic factors

D) Culture specific

B) Something that we are born with (innate)

84

The infant engages in sound production (cooing, babbling) in which the infant is believed to:

A) Practice speech sounds for later word production

B) Communicate an immature form of words

C) Imitate the sound that they hear

D) Self-regulate to aid social communication

A) Practice speech sounds for later word production

85

.Young children in general understand many more words than what they can say. Which statement is correct regarding the reason for this mismatch?

A) Young children cannot distinguish well enough between the different speech sounds they hear

B) The cognitive effort in learning the meaning of words is so high that they focus less on learning how to produce the correct sounds

C) Young children are too engaged in monitoring and learning the social aspects of language that they pay less attention to word production

D) Young children are not that keen on communicating expressively

B) The cognitive effort in learning the meaning of words is so high that they focus less on learning how to produce the correct sounds

86

Children need to learn how to understand and use language in relevant ways in different social contexts to become skilled communicators. By 5-9 years of age children start to use ___________, which is when a change of topic is initiated gradually to change the focus of the discussion that the child is involved in.

A) Illocutionary intent

B) Speech register

C) Shading

D) Mutual exclusivity bias

C) Shading

87

Speech register

As early as the preschool years, children are sensitive to language adaptations to social expectations, known as speech registers.
If a child is palying a mom the child would use a softer nice approche and if they play polise the will use a harder professional roll

88

Illocutionary intent

what a
speaker means to say, even if the form of the utterance is not perfectly consistent with it.

By age
3, children comprehend a variety of requests for action not directly expressed as requests:
“I need a pencil” or “Why don’t you tickle me?”

89

.Fill in the blank: At 12 months, children point at things that they find interesting in their environment with a communicative purpose. This type of communication is called :

Protodeclarative pointing.

90

What best describes the behaviour of a secure (type B) infant with regard to stranger anxiety?

A) Avoids stranger when alone but friendly when attachment figure also is present

B) Plays normally when alone with stranger

C) Can be soothed equally well by stranger and by attachment figure

D) Is positive and happy to see stranger

A) Avoids stranger when alone but friendly when attachment figure also is present

91

Infant directed speech (IDS) is a form of communication made up of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, clear gestures to support verbal meaning and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts. Which statement is true about IDS?

A) In IDS parents actively try to teach their children to speak by fostering imitations of sounds

B) IDS has not been shown to have any effect on language development

C) IDS stems from the Piagetian concept of egocentric speech

D) IDS help the child in the detection of words in the speech stream

D) IDS help the child in the detection of words in the speech stream

92

Children point at things that they find interesting in their environment with a communicative purpose. This is a type of communication called Protodeclarative pointing. At what age do children in general start using this type of communication?

A) 10 months

B) 4 months

C) 6 months

D) 20 months

A) 10 months

93

Children need to learn how to understand and use language in relevant ways in different social contexts to become skilled communicators. Shading refers to when a change of topic is initiated gradually to change the focus of the discussion that the child currently is involved in. At what age do children start to use shading?

A)13-15 years of age

B)5-9 years of age

C)10-12 years of age

D)2-5 years of age

B)5-9 years of age

94

Ellen, 1 year of age, and her mother is at the playground when her mother’s telephone rings. Ellen’s mother is distracted by the phone call and does not notice that Ellen climbs up a climbing frame that is intended for much older children. Another parent notices that Ellen is way too high up. He acts quickly and lifts Ellen down in a friendly way while saying “I think that’s a bit too high for you sweetheart”. Ellen bursts into tears. Ellen’s mother notices what has happened and comforts her.

What is the emotional reaction called that Ellen displays?

Stranger anixiety

95

Anna, 1.5 years of age, will spend a couple of hours with her grandmother, as her mother will go to the hairdresser. Anna is protesting loudly when her mother is saying goodbye. She is clinging to her mother’s legs and Anna’s grandmother tries to distract her by telling her that they will go to feed the ducklings. Anna’s mother also promises that they will have ice cream when she gets back. When Anna’s mother later returns Anna is distressed. Anna puts her arms up so that her mother can lift her up. When Anna’s mother has lifted her up Anna hits her and tries to wiggle her way out of her mother’s arms.

Based on the Mary Ainsworth theories of attachment, which attachment style best fits Anna’s behavior?

Resistant attachment : seeks closeness before parent leaves and when they come back the child combines clinginess with angry resistant behaviour.

96

In the strange situation procedure (SSP) the attachment pattern between an infant and one of his/her attachment persons is assessed. Describe any two characteristics that differ with regards to 1) the separation behavior and 2) the reunion behavior of avoidant (type A) and the secure (type B) infant during this procedure.

Type A, avoidant:
1. unresoonsive to the cargiver when she leaves.
2. Ignores the caregiver when the cargiver comes back.


Type B, secure:
1. may or may not cry because they prefer cargiver over stranger.
2. They actively seek contact when cargiver comes back.

97

The style of identity formation where an identity is arrived at with little or no exploration and experimentation is referred to as:

A)Negative identity

B)Identity diffusion

C)Identity foreclosure

D)Identity moratorium

C)Identity foreclosure

98

Susan, a 2 and a half-year old girl, and her mother were looking at a photo album when Susan got really excited about a particular picture of herself. She pointed at it and kept repeating: “Susan, Susan”. Susan is demonstrating the phenomenon of:

Self-recognition

99

__________ is when children understand that sex does not determine personality characteristics/attributes, interests, activities and behaviours.

A) Gender typing

B) Gender flexibility

C) Gender identity

D) Gender typicality

B) Gender flexibility

100

According to Kohlberg´s gender identity theory; understanding that sex is biologically based and remains the same even if activities and appearance are in violation with gender stereotypes is referred to as:

A)Gender identity

B)Gender labelling

C)Gender consistency

D)Gender stability

C)Gender consistency

101

Nancy is a 65-year-old surgeon. She decided to stop operating regularly and instead took on a teaching job to become a professor. She observed that while her eye hand coordination was not as sharp as it had been earlier, she had seen a lot of medical complications that would be useful to train students in medical school. Hence teaching, she felt, was a better fit for her abilities compared to surgery. Which one of the following phenomena BEST describes Nancy’s situation?

A) Socioemotional selectivity

B) Intimacy vs. isolation

C) Social clock model

D) Selection and optimization

D) Selection and optimization


Adapting to age

102

In which of the following areas does older adults outperform younger adults?

A) Fluid intelligence

B) Practical problem solving

C) Episodic memory

D) Executive functions

B) Practical problem solving

103

Which of the following is true according to cross-cultural research on Erikson´s theory?

A) Erikson´s theory has not been evaluated from a cross-cultural perspective

B) Adolescent identity crisis occurs in all cultures

C) The attempt to establish autonomy occurs only in Western cultures

D) Self-evaluation becomes more realistic in in all cultures till about adolescence?

D) Self-evaluation becomes more realistic in in all cultures till about adolescence?

104

JinJing, a Chinese researcher completed her doctoral studies in the United States and was eager to use her knowledge to understand her own community better. One of the questionnaires she used included a rating scale of 1-10. During data analysis she found that not even a single participant had given the rating of either 1 or 10. What phenomenon was JinJing observing?

A) Sampling inadequacy

B) Cultural response set

C) Non-cultural demographic equivalence

D) Individualism-collectivism dimension

B) Cultural response set

105

An important goal of cross-cultural psychology is the “transport and test goal”. This means?

A) Integrating findings to generate a more universal psychology

B) Exploring other cultures to discover variations in behavior

C) Extending the generalizability of existing theories

D) None of the above

C) Extending the generalizability of existing theories

106

During the first year babies signal their emotional state through facial expressions, vocalizations and gestures. With development, the clarity and specificity of the emotional expressions increases gradually and provides better information about the baby’s internal state. Between the age of 18 months to 4 years children’s emotional understanding and expressions grow to include more complex emotions like embarrassment and shame.

Provide two explanations for why complete emotions are later in their development than basic emotions.

Self-awareness need to be developed and
the child needs adult instruktions to when to feel proud and ashamed etc.

107

What are the characteristics of difficult babies, according to Thomas & Chess?

1. Irregular in daily rutines

2. Adapts slowly to no things and reacts negatively and intensely.

3. Tend to have high activity level.

108

A commonly reported sex/gender difference is that boys and girls engage in aggressive behaviours differently. Girls are often involved in relational aggression and boys in physical aggression. What is the BEST explanation for this difference?

girls have high oestrogen levels that has calming effect and boys have testosterone which makes the more aggressive.

But boys do engen in competitive group activities to a higher extent which may give aggression a bit of a spark.

While girls engage in physical aggression when relational aggression is not affective.

And my personal opinion as a girl is that social structures and stereotypes are also involved a bit. As a girl you always get to hear when you a kid that girls don’t fight while boys get to fight and be violent as much as they want. But that is just my personal opinion.

109

How an individual FEELS about him/herself is referred to as:

A) Self-consciousness

B) Self-image stability

C) Self-conception

D) self-esteem

D) self-esteem

110

Fill in the blank: Eriksson believed that humans move through ______series of psychosocial crises over the course of the lifespan.

8 st.

111

LMC: Language making capacity

barn startar inte med en medfödd kunskap men med procedurer för att kunna analysera språket som de hör som ger stöd till utveckling och upptäckt av grammatiska regler.

112

Mean length of utterance MLU

En mätning som baseras på antal av “morphemes” i barnets tal. Kan endast applicerar på små barn.