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Flashcards in NZ Deck (60):

What is The South Islands Northernmost island?



New Zealand South Island Regions

Central Otago


New Zealand North Island Regions

Waikato/Bay of Plenty
Hawkes Bay
Wellington (Wairarapa)


The first record of actual wine production dates to the late 1830s, when ___, a British minister involved in early viticultural efforts in New South Wales

James Busby


Where did Busby originally plant?

He planted a small vineyard from French and Spanish cuttings at his estate in Northland


Beer production outpaced wine; however, and near the turn of the century the Department of Agriculture charged __, an Austrian viticulturist from Victoria, with the task of studying the nation’s vineyards and combating its newest scourge: phylloxera.

Romeo Bragato


Besides trying to combat phylloxera, what else did Romeo Bragato accomplish?

Bragato identified many of New Zealand’s modern wine regions (with the important exception of Marlborough) and educated growers on the merits of grafting vines onto disease-resistant American rootstock.


Why was the Dept of Viticulture disbanded in 1909?

Unfortunately, a simmering temperance movement in the country stymied this promising start to the 20th century, and the Department of Agriculture’s Viticultural Division was disbanded in 1909.


Explain NZ winemaking in terms of how economical they are, and how that compares to Australia and the rest of the world?

As in Australia, mechanical harvesting is common—a consistently cheap source of manual labor is difficult to find in the sparsely populated country. Unlike Australia, with its huge irrigated agricultural zones, New Zealand has little land to spare; thus, modern bulk wine production is not economically feasible—there is no New Zealand equivalent to California’s Central Valley or Australia’s Riverland. Producers overall have concentrated on higher price points in the global wine market. In fact, New Zealand wine on average commands a higher price per bottle than any other country in the world. However, this position is threatened by the recent release and influx of cheaper Sauvignon Blanc wines, especially in the British market—an unfortunate turn of events for the country’s serious producers, who have worked so hard collectively to craft the modern image of premium New Zealand wines.


What kind of terrain has most of NZs vineyards?

New Zealand’s vineyards are typically planted on flat expanses and most are located within twenty miles of the eastern coastline.


What is NZ Winegrowers?

All New Zealand producers and growers belong to New Zealand Winegrowers, an organization formed in 2002 as a joint initiative of the Grape Growers Council and the New Zealand Wine Institute. New Zealand Winegrowers promotes and presents a unified face for New Zealand wine, building on the past successes of its parent organizations. Undoubtedly, the organization will greatly influence the structure and codification of New Zealand’s emerging appellation system.


What is The Screwcap Initiative?

an international association committed to using the closure—even on ultra-premium bottlings. Although both Swiss and Australian wineries were using the closure prior to its widespread adoption in New Zealand, the screwcap has become synonymous with Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc, and the runaway success of the wine simultaneously raised public acceptance of the closure.


Who was the 1st to botlle with a screwcap in NZ?

Kim Crawford


Today over __% of the country’s wines are finished with the screwcap closure.



What is “Six o’clock swill”?

“Six o’clock swill”, an early closing hour for pubs instituted in both Australia and New Zealand during World War I, lasted until 1967 on the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The early closing time of six o’clock was a move by anti-alcohol forces in the country to return men to their wives at a respectable hour, and those in the business of selling alcohol capitulated, preferring such a restriction to outright prohibition.


What struggles prohibited growth in fine wines in NZ in the 20th century?

amongst prohibition/temperance fears, growers planted low quality fruit that could be sold as table grapes.

many of these lower quality grapes were hybrids and thus immune to the ravages of phylloxera—Bragato’s recommendations lay forgotten in a climate of hysteria.


In 1960, “____” was New Zealand’s most planted varietal. Depression hampered sales in the 1930s, and cheap imported wines were readily available.

1960, “Albany Surprise” was New Zealand’s most planted varietal. Depression hampered sales in the 1930s, and cheap imported wines were readily available.


when did exponential growth of NZ wineries and vineyards occur?

From 1960 to 2008, New Zealand’s vineyard acreage increased exponentially, from approximately 400 ha to over 29,000 ha. A total of approximately 100 wineries in the mid-1980s ballooned to over 600 wineries in the country today.


New Zealand wines must contain a minimum __% of a stated varietal or vintage. This minimum will extend to the statement of region on the label, once such regions are legally defined.



How is labeling by vintage/varietal viewed? What viticulture practices are prohibited?

Declaration of vintage and varietal is optional. Winemaking and viticultural choices are, in general, left to the winemaker’s discretion; as in other New World countries, there are no laws governing enrichment, acidification, pruning, yields, or irrigation techniques.


What is Montana?

New Zealand’s largest winemaking company, established Marlborough’s first commercial vineyard in 1973, released the country’s first varietal wine (Gisborne Chardonnay), and produced one of the first Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc wines in 1979


What winery put Marlborough Sauv Blanc on the map?

Cloudy Bay Vineyards, launched in 1985, put the region on the map.


Describe Marlborough SB?

Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc was something utterly upfront, piercing and pungent; highly intense aromas of passion fruit, jalapeño, ripe grapefruit, and grass filled out Sauvignon Blanc’s racy structure, and the wine became an international sensation.


Put these in order of greatest to least acerage
Pinot Noir
Pinot Gris
Cabernet Sauvignon

Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Merlot, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Gewürztraminer


New Zealand is the world’s ___most and ___most winemaking country: the North Island lies on the same latitude as Tasmania, but over ___ miles of ocean separate the two.



Which island is largest? warmest? rainest? most flat?

The south-largest
north-warmest, flat, more rain


What is the south islands terroir?

The Southern Alps- rainshadow from tasmianian sea rainclouds

Abundant sunshine hours on the South Island aid ripening while the consistently cool nights allow grapes to retain acidity and the zesty character so prized in the country’s whites.


Southern most wine making region in the world?

Central Otago 45th parallel


On the extreme uppermost end of the North Island, Northland’s latitude is comparable to that of ____—although its climate is more often likened to __

Jerez in Spain


Auckland subregions and grapes?

Chardonnay, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon lead in acreage. Premium red blends and varietal wines, especially from the subregions of Kumeu, Waiheke Island and Matakana, are highly regarded.


Gisborne aka

Poverty bay


Gisborne most planted grapes

Chardonnay, Muller-Thurgau, Gewurztraminer - more whites b/c reds struggle to ripen


North ISlands Southernmost region

Wairarapa - officially called Wellington


Wairarapas sub region and major grapes?

Pinot Noir/Sauvignon Blanc - Martinborough


Auckland - name meaning, production, and locale?

Auckland, named for New Zealand’s largest city, is located between Northland and Waikato/Bay of Plenty. Despite its 1960s status as New Zealand’s largest region, production is now just slightly higher than that of Waikato, representing 2% of the national total.


Where is Villa Maria and Montana located?

Auckland - N ISland - it is the center of the wine buisness


Auckland's subregions' terroir?

All three regions experience a moderate, rainy maritime climate; rot and frost are among the chief viticultural hazards. Among Auckland’s unofficial subregions, the hilly Waiheke Island enjoys a singularly sunny, dry climate, especially on its lower western side, where many of the region's wineries are clustered.


Where does the majority of the North Islands bulk production come from?

The bulk of the North Island’s production is concentrated in the central and southern regions of Gisborne, Hawkes Bay, and Wairarapa.


Hawks Bay subregions?

Gimblett Gravels
Ngatarawa (known for Merlot)
Esk Valley
Dartmoor Valley.


Gimblett gravels terroir and grapes?

Hawks Bay - Gimblett Gravels, an area of deep shingle soils, is rapidly establishing a reputation as a source of good Syrah and Bordeaux-style blends, and already appears on a number of labels as a trademarked brand.


Where is Ngatarawa and what is it known for?

Ngatarawa , Hawks Bay - (known for Merlot)


Describe Nelson's terroir?

Nelson, the northernmost region on the South Island, is New Zealand’s sunniest wine-producing region. Paradoxically, it is also the rainiest region on the South Island. Cool and smallest area on s island


Nelsons major grapes?

Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling and Pinot Noir compose over 80% of the region’s vineyard acreage, excelling in the cool climate.


What region produces over half of NZs wine?

Marlborough produces over half of the entire country’s wine, with nearly 10,000 ha of Sauvignon Blanc alone.


Central Otago Sub regions

Central Otago’s best-known subregions include Wanaka, Gibbston, Alexandra, and Cromwell Basin.


Marlborough Terroir?

Average maximum summertime temperatures of 75° F are moderated by cool nights, and the dry, lengthy growing season allows grapes to ripen while retaining fresh, crisp character.. Soil in the three major subregions is generally composed of sandy, alluvial loam topsoil over gravel, providing excellent drainage and limiting vine vigor. Some sites are more water-retentive, and induce a more herbaceous character in the final wine. Irrigation is widespread.


Marlborough subregions?

the northern Wairau Valley, the central Southern Valleys, and the southernmost Awatere Valley


Marlborough wine styles and grapes

Most Sauvignon Blanc, followed by Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Pinot Gris and Riesling are the next most-planted grapes, although even the combined acreage trails that of Sauvignon Blanc significantly. The region has also gained a reputation for traditional method sparkling wines.


Who controls most of Marlborough?

Montana, through subsidiary wineries such as Brancott and Fairhall, controls nearly two-thirds of Marlborough’s vineyards, and maintains a solidly high quality despite its reach and size.


What wineries are making the majority of Marlborough sparkling wines?

Cloudy Bay, Kim Crawford, and Hunter’s. Montana’s Lindauer brand sparkling wines are the most exported wines of the country, and in 1988, a partnership forged between Montana and Deutz of Champagne to produce premium sparkling wines cemented Marlborough’s future in the world of bubbly.


What region is south of Marlborough?



Canterbury subregion and grapes

northern subregion Waipara Valley - Pinot Noir, Riesling, Chardonnay, and the ubiquitous Sauvignon Blanc are successful here.


Central Otago Terroir

Southernmost in world and country's highest in altitude.Central Otago is the only region in the country to experience a truly continental climate, with greater seasonal temperature extremes than any of the country’s maritime regions. Diurnal temperature swings are also quite significant, and winemakers take advantage of the sun by planting on northern hillside exposures—southern-facing slopes are often too cool for viticulture. Low humidity prevents rot, but spring frosts are a costly problem and in cooler years winemakers have great difficulty coaxing ripeness from the grapes at all.


Central Otago Grapes and producers?

Pinot Noir epitomized by producers such as Felton Road, Mt. Difficulty, and Rippon


what is the 1st region to see sunlight every day? (in the world)



What is the organization called for New Zealand wineries

New Zealand winegrowers


What region is the rainiest yet sunniest



What exposure must Otago plant on hillsides in order for grapes to gain ripeness?

Northern Hillside exposures to get the sun. SOuthern sides do not get enough direct hours of sunlight .


What is the dominate climatic regulators on the South Island?

* Southern Alps create a slight rainshadow as Tasmanian winds dump moisture on the western side of the island, leaving the eastern side of the Alps dryer and sunnier.
* Pacific Ocean, polar winds and cold ocean currents
* Southern Most wine region in world has most daytime sunlight hours of any where.


What were some 'Temperance' related issues that stunted NZ's growth until the 1980s?

- 1909, disbanded viticulture division of Dept of Ag.
- No alcohol could be sold in pubs past 6pm ("Six o clock swill" law, til 1967)
- in case of full prohibition, most growers planted low quality or hybrid grapes that could be sold as table grapes
- phylloxera teachings of Bragato forgotten/lost (american rootstock grafting, etc)
- 1930s economic depression
- wineshops barred from selling single bottles of wine (til 1955)
- restaurants barred from selling wine (til 1960)
- wineries couldn't sell BTG (til 1976)
- dry counties in effect til 1990s
- vitis vinifera replanting not done til 1970s, gov't vine pulling sceme not til 1986.