O1 Flashcards Preview

D&D > O1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in O1 Deck (45):
1

Rule of 2 of Meckel’s Diverticulum

2 inches long
2 ft. From ileocecal valve
2% of population
2 years old
2 types of epithelia (gastric, pancreatic)

2

Opportunistic fungal infections

1. Candida
2. Aspergillus
3. Pneumocystis
4. Cryptococcus

3

Types of collagen

I- bONE
II- carTWOlage
III- 3ticulin (reticulin)
IV- FLOOR (basement membrane)

4

Glucose transporter

Glut 1: RBC, Brain
Glut 2: pancreas, liver, kidney, small intestine
Glut 4: adipose tissue, skeletal muscle

5

Types of Medical Fees

1. Pakyaw or Straight Fee
2. Retainer fee
3. Contingent fee
4. Simple fee

6

Cardiac cycle

1. Atrial contraction
2 Isovolumetric contraction
3. Systolic ejection
4. Isovolumertic relaxation
5. Rapid ventricular filling
6. Reduced ventricular filling

7

Right to left shunts: cyanotic heart disease

1. Truncus arteriosus
2. Transposition of great vessels
3. Tricuspid atresia
4. Tetralogy of fallot
5. TAPVR

8

Left to Right shunts

VSD: pansystolic murmur
ASD: fixed split S2
PDA: continuous machinery like murmur

9

Tetralogy of fallot

1. RVH
2. Pulmonic valve stenosis
3. VSD
4. Overriding aorta

10

Steps in protein synthesis

Initiation -> Elongation -> Termination

11

Start codon

AUG

12

Stop codon

UAA
UAG
UGA

13

Hesselbach’s triangle:

1. epigastric vessels
2. inguinal ligament
3. lateral borders of rectus abdominis

14

Triangle of Calot:

1. cystic duct
2. common hepatic duct
3. inferior border of the liver

significance: Cystic artery

15

Types of necrosis

1. coagulative
2. liquefactive
3. casseous
4. fatty
5. fibrinoid
6. gangrenous

16

Transudate vs. Exudate

Transudate:
• HYPOcellular
• Protein POOR
• SG: < 1.012
• Due to:
1. increased hydrostatic pressure (ex. Heart failure)
2. decreased oncotic pressure (ex. Nephrotic syndrome)

Exudate:
• HYPERcellular
• Protein RICH
• SG: > 1.012
• Due to:
1. inflammation, Cancer, PTB
2. obstruction

17

Double bubble sign in xray

Duodenal atresia

18

BILE components

• Lecithin
• Bile acid/ Bilirubin
• Cholesterol

Absorption-> Terminal ileum

19

Plummer Vinson Syndrome

Dysphagia
Anemia
Glossitis

20

APPENDICITIS: Stages

1. Congestive
2. Suppurative
3. Gangrenous
4. Rupture

21

PHARMACOKINETICS

What the body does to the drug

1. Bioavailability
2. Volume of Distribution
3. Half life
4. Clearance

22

TUMOR Markers

PSA- Prostate
CA-125- ovarian
CEA- Colon
S-100- neuro
AFP- Liver
ALP- bone
B-HCG- GTD’s
CA-15-3- Breast
CA 19-9 - Parncreatic

23

HYPERSENSITIVITY Reaction

I- Anaphylactic (allergic reactions)
II- Immune mediated (goodpasture, ITP)
III- Cell mediated (SLE, Serum sickness, GVHD)
IV- Delayed (GB, Contact derm, TB)

24

Transplant rejection

HYPERACUTE - within minutes
ACUTE - within weeks
CHRONIC - within months
GVHD - varies

25

Cell Types:

1. Permanent Cells
2. Stable (Quiescent) Cells
3. Labile cells

26

5 STAR PHYSICIAN:

1. Medical Researcher
2. Health Educator
3. Health Leader
4. Health Care Provider
5. Social Mobilizer

27

5 TYPES OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN:

IgG
IgA
IgM
IgE
IgD

28

Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve

SHIFT TO THE LEFT:
1. Decreased temperature
2. Decreased altitude
3. Decreased pCO2
4. Decreased 2,3 DPG
5. Fetal Hemoglobin
6. INCREASED pH

SHIFT TO THE RIGHT:
1. Increased temperature
2. Increased altitude
3. Increased pCO2
4. Increased 2,3 DPG
5. DECREASED pH

29

Gastric Cells and their Secretions:

Mucus cells- Mucus
G cells- Gastrin
Chief cells- pepsinogen
Parietal cells- HCl and IF

30

10 MEDICINAL PLANTS:

1. Sambong: diuretic and anti-urolithiasis
2. Akapulko: fungal dermatitis; scabies
3. Niyug-niyogan: ascariasis
4. Tsaang gubat: abdominal pain
5. Ampalaya: DM
6. Lagundi: cough and asthma
7. Ulasimang bato: anti-gout
8. Bayabas: wound cleaning; mouth sore
9. Bawang: lowers cholesterol
10. Yerba Buena: body ache; pain

31

SOURCES OF INFECTION IN SURGICAL PATIENTS:

1. Indwelling catheter/IV
2. UTI, SSS
3. Sinusitis
4. Clostroidium difficile enteritis
5. Diverticulitis
6. Perforated PUD

32

PRIMITIVE REFLEXES:

1. Moro reflex
2. Rooting reflex
3. Sucking reflex
4. Palmar and plantar reflex
5. Babinski reflex
6. Gallant reflex

33

STRAP MUSCLES:

Sternohyoid
Sternothyroi
Superior body of
omohyoid

34

HAGMA

MUDPILES

Methanol
Uremia
DKA
Infection, Iron, Isoniazid, Inborn errors of metabolism
Lactic acidosis
Ethylene glycol
Salicylates, Sympathomimetics

35

NAGMA

HAARDUP

Hyperalimentation
Acetazolamide, Amphotericin B
Renal Tubular acidosis
Diarrhea
Ureterosigmoidostomy
Pancreatic fistula

36

MALE AND FEMALE GENITAL HOMOLOGUE

Glans penis- Glans clitoris
Corpus cavernosum and spongiosum- vestibular
bulbs
Bulbourethral glands of Cowper- Greater vestibular
glands of Bartholin
Prostate gland- Urethral and Paraurethral glands
of Skene
Ventral shaft of penis- Labia minora
Scrotum- Labia majora

37

TOP 5 CAUSES OF ATRIAL FIBRILLATION:

1. Ethanol ingestion: Holiday heart syndrome
2. Valvular heart disease
3. Ischemic heart disease
4. Cardiomyopathy
5. Thyrotoxicosis

38

CHARCOT’S TRIAD:

1. Fever
2. RUQ pain
3. Jaundice

39

Reynold's Pentad

1. Fever
2. RUQ pain
3. Jaundice
4. Change in sensorium
5. Hypotension (shock)

40

BENIGN THYROID DISEASES:

1. Grave’s disease
2. Plummer’s disease
3. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis
4. Giant cell thyroiditis

41

MALIGNANT THYROID DISEASES:

1. Papillary carcinoma: 80% best prognosis
2. Follicular carcinoma: 10% unicentric
3. Medullary carcinoma: 5%
4. Anaplastic carcinoma: poor prognosis

42

JONES Criteria for Acute Rheumatic Fever

Major manifestation:

"J"oint - Polyarthritis, migratory
O (heart) - Carditis
"N"eurologic -sydenham Chorea
"E"rythema marginatum
"S"ubcutaneous nodules

Minor manifestation:
1. Clinical findings: arthralgia and fever
2. Lab findings: increased Acute phase reactants,
prolonged PR interval

43

DUKES Criteria for Infective Endocarditis

Major Criteria:
1. Positive blood culture results for IE
2. Positive echocardiographic study

MINOR criteria:
1. Predisposing heart condition
2. Fever >38.0C
3. Vascular phenomena

44

ECG:

P wave: atrial depolarization
PR interval: conduction delay through AV node
QRS complex: ventricular depolarization
T wave: ventricular repolarization

45

ECG changes in MI:

1. ST elevation: transmural infarct
2. Pathologic Q waves: transmural infarct
3. ST depression: subendocardial infarct