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Flashcards in Surgery Deck (21):
1

Causes of anorectal abscess or fistulas

1. Trauma
2. Hard stools
3. Excessive Diarrhea
4. Anal intercourse
5. Radiation
6. Crohns Disease

2

Give six differential diagnosis of nipple discharges

1. Pregnancy
2. Infection and Mastitis
3. Galactorrhea
4. Fibrocystic changes
5. Intraductal papilloma
6. Carcinoma

3

Give eight sources of infection in surgical patients

1. Indwelling intravenous line or catheter related sepsis
2. Surgical Site Infection
3. Clostridium Difficile Enteritis
4. Urinary Tract Infection
5. Sinusitis
6. Acalculous Cholecystitis
7. Perforated PUD
8. Diverticulitis

4

Give six causes of instability after blunt trauma

1. Tension Pneumothorax
2. Hemothorax
3. Cardiac Tamponade
4. Cardiac Contusion
5. Air emboli
6. Injury to great vessels

5

Give the type of cancer associated with the following tumor markers

1. CEA
2. AFP
3. CA19-9
4. PSA
5. CA 15-3

1. CEA colon cancer
2. AFP hepatocellular CA
3. CA19-9 pancreatic CA
4. PSA prostate
5. CA 15-3 breast CA

6

Give six indications for mandatory intra-operative exploration of the common bile duct

1. Jaundice
2. CBD dilation more than 12 mm
3. Filling defect in CBD noted on cholangiogram
4. No stones in gallbladder
5. Acute Pancreatitis
6. Palpable stones in CBD

7

Give eight conditions or disease entities for which splenectomy may be curative

1. Hereditary Spherocytosis
2. Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura
3. Sickle cell disease
4. Idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia
5. Thalassemia
6. Hereditary Elliptocytosis
7. Secondary hypersplenism
8. Splenic truma

8

Give eight signs and symptoms of small bowel obstruction

1. Colicky abdominal pain
2. Vomiting
3. Constipation
4. Obstipation or absence of flatus
5. High-pitched tingling sounds
6. Abdominal distention
7. No rebound tenderness
8. No peritonitis

9

Give FIVE signs of limb ischemia

1. Pallor
2. Paresthesia
3. Pulselessness
4. Poikilothermia
5. Pain

10

Give at least seven specific disease entities which causes GIT obstruction in the newborn

1. duodenal atresia
2. malrotation or midgut volvulus
3. jejunal atresia
4. meconium ileus
5. NEC
6. Hirschprung’s diseases
7. Congenital hypertrophic pyloric

11

What are the ABCDE of trauma management?


A – Airway and cervical spine control
B – Breathing
C – Circulation
D – Deficit / disability
E – Exposure

12

Give six signs and symptoms of spontaneous pneumothorax

1. sudden onset of severe pleuritic chest pain
2. dyspnea
3. hyperresonance to percussion
4. absent tactile fremitus
5. ipsilateral tracheal deviation
6. elevation of ipsilateral hemidiaphragm

13

Give six indications for exploratory laparotomy after penetrating abdominal trauma

1. signs of peritonitis
2. bowel/omental evisceration
3. hemodynamic instability despite adequate resuscitation
4. evidence of penetration of fascia during local wound exploration
5. pneumoperitoneum ( seen in abdominal x-rays)
6. blood in stomach (NGT) or rectum (rectal exams)

14

Give Five signs and symptoms of gastric cancer

1. weight loss
2. epigastric pain
3. early satiety
4. vomiting
5. epigastric mass

15

Give at least seven differential diagnosis of scrotal swelling

1. indirect inguinal hernia
2. hydrocoele
3. varicocoele
4. seminoma
5. epididymal cyst
6. testicular torsion
7. orchitis

16

Give eight risk factors for breast cancer

1. age (average age is 64 y/o)
2. family history
3. excessive estrogen exposure (early menarche/late menopause)
4. biopsy showing atypical ductal/lobular hyperplasia
5. history of endometrial cancer
6. history of previous breast cancer
7. radiation
8. increase fats

17

Give 14 causes of poor wound repair

1. infection
2 .Foreign body
3. malnutrition
4. sepsis
5. anemia
6. zinc deficiency
7. corticosteroids
8. chemotherapy
9. diabetes mellitus
10. aids
11. edema
12. obesity
13. radiation
14. scurvy

18

Give FIVE indications for surgery in peptic ulcer disease

1. persistent bleeding
2. perforation
3. obstruction
4. intractable pain
5. suspicious of malignancy

19

Give six causes of explosive onset of abdominal pain

1. perforated peptic ulcer
2. biliary colic
3. ureteral colic
4. ruptured aortic aneurysm
5. dissecting aortic aneurysm
6. bowel strangulation

20

Give six clinical conditions predisposing to acquired hernias

1. obesity
2. old age
3. malnourished
4. COPD
5. BPH
6. colonic obstruction

21

Give seven signs and symptoms of peritonsillar abscess

1. medial displacement of tonsils
2. buldging abscess thru anterior tonsillar pillars
3. fever and chills
4. pain with talking
5. dysphonia/hot potato voice
6. inflamed or deviated uvula
7. foul smelling breath