Flashcards in OB/Peds Exam 1 Deck (114):
School age period
Head to toe
Near to far
When do you measure length while they're laying supine?
Under 36 months
Definite sequence, each child normally passes through every stage. Crawl before standing, stand before walking.
Differences within a gene found in more than 1% of a particular population
What is the pattern of inheritance referred to as?
Unifactorial or single-gene because a single gene controls a trait or disorder.
Only one copy of a variant allele is needed to express the disorder
Both genes must be abnormal for the disorder to be expressed
Extrinsic mechanical forces on normally developed tissue
Breakdown of previously normal tissue
Abnormal organization of cells into a particular cell type. Cause congenital abnormalities of the teeth, hair, nails, or sweat glands
Abnormal formations of organs or body parts
When do most malformations occur?
Before 12 weeks gestation
Recognized pattern of anomalies resulting from a single specific cause
Non random pattern of malformations for which a cause has not been determined
When one anomaly leads to a cascade of others
What genetic abnormalities do nurses often note?
Dysmorphic facial features, unusual cry, poor feeding, hypotonia, abnormal reflexes
What do you ask about when you notice a genetic abnormality?
Health history (minimum of 3 generations), sudden cardiac death, early onset cancer, mental illness
Delayed sexual maturation
Developmental delays, growth and behavior delays
How many fontanels and when do they close?
Anterior and posterior, posterior closes at 2 months, anterior is almost closed at 12 months, closed by 18 months
Growth of infants
Increases 5-7 oz per week until 6 months when birth weight is doubled. Then it slows and will triple birth weight by 1 year
Increases 1 in per month for first 6 months then slows. Height increases in trunk, not legs
Chest circumference equals head circumference when?
By end of 1st year
Fetal hgb is present for how long?
1st 5 months, then adult hgb rises
Maternal iron stores for how long
5-6 months then supplement is needed
Immature digestion, loose stools, strain to have BM
Immature renal system, dehydration because they can't concentrate urine
When are infants able to see two pictures as one?
6 weeks-4 months
When do infants develop depth perception?
Fine and gross motor skills
When are infants able to roll from abdomen to back
By 5 months
When are infants able to roll from back to abdomen?
By 6 months
Sitting at 4 months
Rounded back with head control
Sitting at 7 months
Sitting at 8 months
Sitting at 10 months
Can go from prone to sitting
Coordination of arms
Bears weight on legs with assistance, crawls with abdomen on floor
Crawls with abdomen off floor
Can stand while holding onto furniture, gets down by falling
Walks while holding onto furniture
Walks while holding one hand
Hands are closed
Hands mostly open
Grasp object due to reflexes
Voluntarily grasp an object
Transfer object from one hand to another
Crude pincer grasp
Deliberately let go of object and offer
Fine pincer grasp
Build a tower of two blocks but fails
Trust vs mistrust
Birth-1 year. Freud's oral stage, taking in senses of parent's trust or mistrust. Result is faith and optimism
Autonomy vs shame and doubt
1-3 years. Freud's anal stage, ability to control body want to do things themselves, walk, decision making. Outcomes are self-control and willpower
Initiative vs guilt
3-6 years. Development of a conscience. Freud's phallic stage, outcomes are direction and purpose
Industry vs. inferiority
6-12 years. Latency period of Freud, engage in tasks and complete, cooperate with others, learn rules, Earn a sense of competence
Identity vs role confusion
12-18 years. Freud's genital period, aware of how others view them, decisions on occupations, inability to solve core conflict results in role confusion. Outcome is devotion and fidelity to others and to values and ideologies.
Theory of children's thinking, intellectual development
Birth-2 years. Develop cause and offed, problem solving by trial and error, curiosity, object permanence, toward need they begin to use language and representational thought.
2-7 years. Can only see things from their own point of view, can't think abstractly, think all women with big bellies have babies.
Concrete operations stage
7-11 years. Able to organize facts for problem solving, thought becomes less self-centered.
Formal operations stage
11-15 years. Draw logical conclusions from a set of observations, make hypotheses and test them, consider abstract matters.
When does mistrust develop?
When trust-promoting experiences are deficient or lacking or basic needs are inconsistently or inadequately met.
Cooing and crying
Single vowel sounds
Consonants and laugh
Combo syllables, no meaning, can imitate
Understands simple commands, no
Adds meaning to dada and mama
3-5 words besides mama and dada
Lower central incisors are first around 6-8 months
Signs of teething
Drooling, swollen gums, irritability, low grade temp
How to soothe teething pain?
Cold, tylenol, teething tabs/orajel
Dental health of infant
Wipe with damp cloth initially, soft bristled brush when teeth erupt, no toothpaste, do not put to bed with bottle or juice
Spread by fecal-oral rough and person-to-person contact, ingestion of contaminated food, rarely by blood transfusion. Abrupt onset with fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, dark urine, jaundice.
Haemophilus influenzae type b
Measles mumps rubella
When does chest circum. exceed head circum?
In toddler years
How much weight do toddlers gain per year?
How much height do toddlers grow per year?
3 inches. Grow in legs and not trunk, makes a pot belly. Adult height is about 2x the 2 year old height
Toddlers want to say no to every question asked of them. Do not ask them a yes or no question. Say you're going to take their vitals now. If you ask and they say no and you do it anyway, they begin to mistrust you.
The need to maintain sameness and reliability, provides a sense of comfort.
Inability to envision situations from perspectives other than one's own.
Reasoning that changing any one part of the whole changes the entire whole.
Attributing lifelike qualities to inanimate objects. Example: being mad at the stairs for making you fall
Believing that thoughts are all-powerful and can cause events
Inability to conserve
Inability to understand the idea that a mass can be changes in size, shape, volume, or length without losing or adding to the original mass.
3-5 words, points to objects, holophrases "up," we can understand about 25% of what they say
More than 10 words
300 words, multiword sentences, we can understand 65% of what they say
Last name and one color
Simple sentences, 5-6 new words a day, use a lot of gestures
At 12-18 months growth rate slows so they need less calories
Eats the same food as family
When does a child need an oral exam?
By 6-12 months
When can you start using soft bristled toothbrushes?
When can you start using actual toothpaste?
2 years. Pea sized amount, must learn how to spit it out, need to floss
Major stressors for children
Limited understanding of illness, separation, loss of control, bodily injury/mutilation, pain