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Flashcards in OB/Peds Exam 1 Deck (114):
1

Neonatal period

Birth-28 days

2

Infant period

1-12 months

3

Toddler period

1-3 years

4

Preschool period

3-6 years

5

School age period

6-12 years

6

Prepubertal period

10-13 years

7

Adolescence period

13-18 years

8

Cephalocaudal

Head to toe

9

Proximodistal

Near to far

10

When do you measure length while they're laying supine?

Under 36 months

11

Sequential trends

Definite sequence, each child normally passes through every stage. Crawl before standing, stand before walking.

12

Polymorphisms

Differences within a gene found in more than 1% of a particular population

13

What is the pattern of inheritance referred to as?

Unifactorial or single-gene because a single gene controls a trait or disorder.

14

Only one copy of a variant allele is needed to express the disorder

Autosomal Dominant

15

Both genes must be abnormal for the disorder to be expressed

Autosomal Recessive

16

Extrinsic mechanical forces on normally developed tissue

Deformations

17

Breakdown of previously normal tissue

Disruptions

18

Abnormal organization of cells into a particular cell type. Cause congenital abnormalities of the teeth, hair, nails, or sweat glands

Dysplasia

19

Abnormal formations of organs or body parts

Malformations

20

When do most malformations occur?

Before 12 weeks gestation

21

Recognized pattern of anomalies resulting from a single specific cause

Syndrome

22

Non random pattern of malformations for which a cause has not been determined

Association

23

When one anomaly leads to a cascade of others

Sequence

24

What genetic abnormalities do nurses often note?

Dysmorphic facial features, unusual cry, poor feeding, hypotonia, abnormal reflexes

25

What do you ask about when you notice a genetic abnormality?

Health history (minimum of 3 generations), sudden cardiac death, early onset cancer, mental illness

26

Delayed sexual maturation

Turner syndrome

27

Fragile X

Developmental delays, growth and behavior delays

28

How many fontanels and when do they close?

Anterior and posterior, posterior closes at 2 months, anterior is almost closed at 12 months, closed by 18 months

29

Growth of infants

Increases 5-7 oz per week until 6 months when birth weight is doubled. Then it slows and will triple birth weight by 1 year

30

Height growth

Increases 1 in per month for first 6 months then slows. Height increases in trunk, not legs

31

Chest circumference equals head circumference when?

By end of 1st year

32

Fetal hgb is present for how long?

1st 5 months, then adult hgb rises

33

Maternal iron stores for how long

5-6 months then supplement is needed

34

Normal GI

Immature digestion, loose stools, strain to have BM

35

Normal GU

Immature renal system, dehydration because they can't concentrate urine

36

When are infants able to see two pictures as one?

6 weeks-4 months

37

When do infants develop depth perception?

7-9 months

38

Fine and gross motor skills

pg 865-69

39

When are infants able to roll from abdomen to back

By 5 months

40

When are infants able to roll from back to abdomen?

By 6 months

41

Sitting at 4 months

Rounded back with head control

42

Sitting at 7 months

Tripod sitting

43

Sitting at 8 months

Sit unsupported

44

Sitting at 10 months

Can go from prone to sitting

45

Coordination of arms

4-6 months

46

Bears weight on legs with assistance, crawls with abdomen on floor

6-7 months

47

Crawls with abdomen off floor

9 months

48

Can stand while holding onto furniture, gets down by falling

9 months

49

Walks while holding onto furniture

11 months

50

Walks while holding one hand

12 months

51

Hands are closed

1 month

52

Hands mostly open

3 months

53

Grasp object due to reflexes

2-3 months

54

Voluntarily grasp an object

5 months

55

Transfer object from one hand to another

7 months

56

Crude pincer grasp

8-9 months

57

Deliberately let go of object and offer

10 months

58

Fine pincer grasp

11 months

59

Build a tower of two blocks but fails

12 months

60

Trust vs mistrust

Birth-1 year. Freud's oral stage, taking in senses of parent's trust or mistrust. Result is faith and optimism

61

Autonomy vs shame and doubt

1-3 years. Freud's anal stage, ability to control body want to do things themselves, walk, decision making. Outcomes are self-control and willpower

62

Initiative vs guilt

3-6 years. Development of a conscience. Freud's phallic stage, outcomes are direction and purpose

63

Industry vs. inferiority

6-12 years. Latency period of Freud, engage in tasks and complete, cooperate with others, learn rules, Earn a sense of competence

64

Identity vs role confusion

12-18 years. Freud's genital period, aware of how others view them, decisions on occupations, inability to solve core conflict results in role confusion. Outcome is devotion and fidelity to others and to values and ideologies.

65

Piaget

Theory of children's thinking, intellectual development

66

Sensorimotor stage

Birth-2 years. Develop cause and offed, problem solving by trial and error, curiosity, object permanence, toward need they begin to use language and representational thought.

67

Preoperational stage

2-7 years. Can only see things from their own point of view, can't think abstractly, think all women with big bellies have babies.

68

Concrete operations stage

7-11 years. Able to organize facts for problem solving, thought becomes less self-centered.

69

Formal operations stage

11-15 years. Draw logical conclusions from a set of observations, make hypotheses and test them, consider abstract matters.

70

When does mistrust develop?

When trust-promoting experiences are deficient or lacking or basic needs are inconsistently or inadequately met.

71

Cooing and crying

Birth-2 months

72

Single vowel sounds

2 months

73

Consonants and laugh

4 months

74

One syllable

6 months

75

Combo syllables, no meaning, can imitate

7 months

76

Understands simple commands, no

9 months

77

Adds meaning to dada and mama

10-11 months

78

3-5 words besides mama and dada

12 months

79

Teething

Lower central incisors are first around 6-8 months

80

Signs of teething

Drooling, swollen gums, irritability, low grade temp

81

How to soothe teething pain?

Cold, tylenol, teething tabs/orajel

82

Dental health of infant

Wipe with damp cloth initially, soft bristled brush when teeth erupt, no toothpaste, do not put to bed with bottle or juice

83

Hep B

?

84

Hep A

Spread by fecal-oral rough and person-to-person contact, ingestion of contaminated food, rarely by blood transfusion. Abrupt onset with fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, dark urine, jaundice.

85

Rotavirus

?

86

Haemophilus influenzae type b

?

87

Pneumococcal

?

88

Poliovirus

?

89

Measles mumps rubella

?

90

Varicella

?

91

Meningococcal

?

92

When does chest circum. exceed head circum?

In toddler years

93

How much weight do toddlers gain per year?

4-6 pounds

94

How much height do toddlers grow per year?

3 inches. Grow in legs and not trunk, makes a pot belly. Adult height is about 2x the 2 year old height

95

Negativism

Toddlers want to say no to every question asked of them. Do not ask them a yes or no question. Say you're going to take their vitals now. If you ask and they say no and you do it anyway, they begin to mistrust you.

96

Ritualism

The need to maintain sameness and reliability, provides a sense of comfort.

97

Egocentrism

Inability to envision situations from perspectives other than one's own.

98

Global organization

Reasoning that changing any one part of the whole changes the entire whole.

99

Animism

Attributing lifelike qualities to inanimate objects. Example: being mad at the stairs for making you fall

100

Magical thinking

Believing that thoughts are all-powerful and can cause events

101

Inability to conserve

Inability to understand the idea that a mass can be changes in size, shape, volume, or length without losing or adding to the original mass.

102

Domestic mimicry

?

103

3-5 words, points to objects, holophrases "up," we can understand about 25% of what they say

12 months

104

More than 10 words

18 months

105

300 words, multiword sentences, we can understand 65% of what they say

2 years

106

Last name and one color

30 months

107

Simple sentences, 5-6 new words a day, use a lot of gestures

3 years

108

Physiologic anorexia

At 12-18 months growth rate slows so they need less calories

109

Eats the same food as family

12 months

110

When does a child need an oral exam?

By 6-12 months

111

When can you start using soft bristled toothbrushes?

1 year

112

When can you start using actual toothpaste?

2 years. Pea sized amount, must learn how to spit it out, need to floss

113

Major stressors for children

Limited understanding of illness, separation, loss of control, bodily injury/mutilation, pain

114

Greatest stressor during early childhood

Separation anxiety, try to prevent