Flashcards in OB Test 2: Infection, Contraception & Infertility Deck (28)
What are TORCH infections?
What are toxoplasmosis, where can you get it and what does it cause?
Protazoa, not an STI but can cross the placenta
Found in cat feces and raw meat
Cn cause fetal damage, heart defects, stillborns and abortions
What can rubella cause and why don't we give it to post partum mothers
Still born, heart ducts, congenital cataracts
It is a viral vaccine so it can cross the placenta so teach mothers to not get pregnant within 6 months of the vaccine
What does cytomegalovirus cause and how can you prevent it?
CMV crosses the placenta and causes disability, hearing loss, hepatosplendmegaly, jaundice
Prevention through really good hand washing
How is herpes spread, what does it mean for birth and how can a newborn get it?
Virus from active lesions
Must have a C section
Can get it from amniotic fluid or vaginal birth
What is the transmission of HIV/AIDS?
Across the placenta, breastmilk and during labor or birth.
Avoid vaginal births, scalp electrodes and forceps
What are the transmission rates of HIV/AIDS.
20% of infants with c-section
1-2% with meds
HIV/AIDS maternal antibodies?
Antiviral drugs during pregnancy, don't breastfeed
What is contraception? What is the difference between birth control and family planning?
The intentional prevention of pregnancy during sexual intercourse
Birth control are methods and devices that prevent conception
Family planning is deciding when to conceive
Why are pharmacological contraception methods?
Coitus interruptus: abstinence only good if practiced
Wha are the types of fertility awareness?
Rhythm method: relying on avoiding intercourse during fertility cycle. Not too reliable
- basal body temperature: ovation temperature
- cervical mucous: changes at ovulation to thin slippery and clear
- sympto-thermal: combining signs of temp and mucous
What are barriers to conception?
-foams, cream, film
-nonoxynol-9 interefere with sperm movement
- increased HIV transmission
- timing: important, has to be placed up by cervix before sex
- failure rate: 29%
- failure rate: 5%
- barrier against STI
- barrier of rubber, cap filled with spermicide anchored by cervix, fitted by physican
- failure rate 16%
- kept in 6 hours after
- sized and filled with spermicide
- left in 6 hours after.
- failure rate 32%
What is the correct condom use?
- pinch top to get air out so semen won't break condom
- petrollium jelly breaks down the latex
What is toxic shock syndrome?
Comes when keep barriers in
Dont use during me station
Only keep things in for 6 hours
What is the action of combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives?
GNRH not released so interrupts menstration cycle and interferes with endometrium development
What are the side effects of combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives?
Thromboembolism, heart attack, hypertension, if smoker less then 35, stroke
What are the products and failure rates of combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives and what does it interfere with
Transdermal: every day for 3 weeks then out for 1 week
Vagina, ring: removed on fourth week
Failure rate of 8%
Interferes with lactation
What is the action of progesterone only contraception?
Inhibits ovulation and thickens cervical mucous
Why is the side effect of progestin-only contraception?
Irregular vaginal bleeding
Decreased bone density
What are the products and failure rate of progstin-only contraception? Does it interfere with lactation?
Oral mini pill: 10% fail rate
Injectable Devo-Provera: one every 3 months, failure rate 3%
Implantable-implanon: thin rod under skin and releases every 3 years
Don't interfere with lactation
What is emergency contraception action and products?
Used within 120 hours of unprotected sex
Action: alters sperm motility and endometrium. Inhibits egg release if prior to ovulation
-"plan B" is high dose progestin only
- high doses of combined oral contraceptives
Intrauterine device products, years of protection. And insertion?
Flare rate <1%
-paragard: copper T acts as spermicide for 10 year protection
-mirena: progestin, 5 year protection
What are the types of sterilization?
What is tubal ligation?
Clamp, cotorize, cut out a piece or apply bands
Goal is to occlude tubes, done easily in c-section or laporodomy
Fill abdomen with gas and after may have shoulder pain so give analgesic
What is a vasectomy?
Out patient procedure with local anesthetic
Have to do sperm count twice
Sperm absorbed in the body
Failure rate is 0.15%
How do you reverse sterilization?
Stitch tubes back together
Increase risk of ectopic pregnancy
What is infertility? Primary and secondary?
The inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse
Primary: never been pregnant
Secondary: pregnant once and not again, can't carry fetus to term