OB Test 2: Infection, Contraception & Infertility Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in OB Test 2: Infection, Contraception & Infertility Deck (28)
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What are TORCH infections?

Other (hepititis)


What are toxoplasmosis, where can you get it and what does it cause?

Protazoa, not an STI but can cross the placenta
Found in cat feces and raw meat
Cn cause fetal damage, heart defects, stillborns and abortions


What can rubella cause and why don't we give it to post partum mothers

Still born, heart ducts, congenital cataracts
It is a viral vaccine so it can cross the placenta so teach mothers to not get pregnant within 6 months of the vaccine


What does cytomegalovirus cause and how can you prevent it?

CMV crosses the placenta and causes disability, hearing loss, hepatosplendmegaly, jaundice

Prevention through really good hand washing


How is herpes spread, what does it mean for birth and how can a newborn get it?

Virus from active lesions
Must have a C section
Can get it from amniotic fluid or vaginal birth


What is the transmission of HIV/AIDS?

Across the placenta, breastmilk and during labor or birth.

Avoid vaginal births, scalp electrodes and forceps


What are the transmission rates of HIV/AIDS.

20% of infants with c-section
1-2% with meds


HIV/AIDS maternal antibodies?

Antiviral drugs during pregnancy, don't breastfeed


What is contraception? What is the difference between birth control and family planning?

The intentional prevention of pregnancy during sexual intercourse
Birth control are methods and devices that prevent conception
Family planning is deciding when to conceive


Why are pharmacological contraception methods?

Coitus interruptus: abstinence only good if practiced


Wha are the types of fertility awareness?

Rhythm method: relying on avoiding intercourse during fertility cycle. Not too reliable

Symptoms-based methods
- basal body temperature: ovation temperature
- cervical mucous: changes at ovulation to thin slippery and clear
- sympto-thermal: combining signs of temp and mucous


What are barriers to conception?

-foams, cream, film
-nonoxynol-9 interefere with sperm movement
- increased HIV transmission
- timing: important, has to be placed up by cervix before sex
- failure rate: 29%

- failure rate: 5%
- barrier against STI

- barrier of rubber, cap filled with spermicide anchored by cervix, fitted by physican
- failure rate 16%
- kept in 6 hours after

Cervical caps
- sized and filled with spermicide
- left in 6 hours after.
- failure rate 32%


What is the correct condom use?

- pinch top to get air out so semen won't break condom
- petrollium jelly breaks down the latex


What is toxic shock syndrome?

Comes when keep barriers in
Dont use during me station
Only keep things in for 6 hours


What is the action of combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives?

GNRH not released so interrupts menstration cycle and interferes with endometrium development


What are the side effects of combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives?

Thromboembolism, heart attack, hypertension, if smoker less then 35, stroke


What are the products and failure rates of combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives and what does it interfere with

Transdermal: every day for 3 weeks then out for 1 week
Vagina, ring: removed on fourth week

Failure rate of 8%

Interferes with lactation


What is the action of progesterone only contraception?

Inhibits ovulation and thickens cervical mucous


Why is the side effect of progestin-only contraception?

Irregular vaginal bleeding
No menses
Weight gain
Decreased libido
Decreased bone density


What are the products and failure rate of progstin-only contraception? Does it interfere with lactation?

Oral mini pill: 10% fail rate
Injectable Devo-Provera: one every 3 months, failure rate 3%
Implantable-implanon: thin rod under skin and releases every 3 years

Don't interfere with lactation


What is emergency contraception action and products?

Used within 120 hours of unprotected sex
Action: alters sperm motility and endometrium. Inhibits egg release if prior to ovulation
-"plan B" is high dose progestin only
- high doses of combined oral contraceptives


Intrauterine device products, years of protection. And insertion?

Flare rate <1%
-paragard: copper T acts as spermicide for 10 year protection
-mirena: progestin, 5 year protection


What are the types of sterilization?

Tubal ligation
Reversal: reanastomosis


What is tubal ligation?

Clamp, cotorize, cut out a piece or apply bands
Goal is to occlude tubes, done easily in c-section or laporodomy
Fill abdomen with gas and after may have shoulder pain so give analgesic


What is a vasectomy?

Out patient procedure with local anesthetic
Have to do sperm count twice
Sperm absorbed in the body
Failure rate is 0.15%


How do you reverse sterilization?

Stitch tubes back together
Increase risk of ectopic pregnancy


What is infertility? Primary and secondary?

The inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse

Primary: never been pregnant
Secondary: pregnant once and not again, can't carry fetus to term


What are the psychosocial effects of infertility?

Major life stressor
Attitude of health care provider
Religious considerations
Cultural considerations