Obstetrics: Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Obstetrics: Part 1 Deck (66):
1

Why is conflict of interest possible only in this patient population?

Maternal fetal interest can be contrary

2

By standard of our profession whose needs come first (mother or child)?

Mother

3

Define gravida

Number of times the patient has been pregnant

4

Define parity

Number of babies born to patient

5

Explain the number system for describing parity

First number: full-term births
Second number: preterm births
Third number: losses
Fourth number: living children

6

Define gestational age

How far along the fetus is in development

7

At what point in gestation is the fetus considered full-term?

38 weeks

8

What is effacement?

Description of how thick or thin the uterine walls are. (100% is really thin)

9

The cervical exam for the obstetric patient consists of what three components?

Dilation
Effacement
Fetal descent (station)

10

What EKG changes can be noted at term in the obstetric patient?

Left axis deviation due to displacement of diaphragm by uterus

Increased risk for arrhythmias

11

What is aortocaval compression?

Also known as supine hypotension syndrome

-Hypotension associated with pallor, sweating, or nausea and vomiting

20% of women

12

What is the most common cause of anesthesia related mortality in this population?

Loss of airway

13

What are some physiologic changes that affect the ecstatic patient's airway status?

Capillary engorgement of the mucosa
Increased risk of epistaxis
Can continually worsen over hours
Edema (esp with PIH)
Difficulty positioning

14

What are some gastrointestinal changes seen in the obstetric patient?

Delayed emptying
Decreased pH
Incompetent gastroesophageal sphincter

15

How do the pregnant patients G.I. changes effect the anesthetic plan?

ALWAYS a full stomach
-given sodium citrate

If General, cuffed tube, RSI, premeds

16

What sort of hematologic changes are seen in pregnant women?

Increased total blood volume
Dilutional anemia
Decreased platelet count
Increased coagulation factors
Elevated D-dimer

Hypercoagulable

17

At what point during gestation is there a change in MAC requirements?

Decrease in MAC by 8-12 weeks

18

Historically and worldwide, what is the number one cause of Pregnancy related mortality?

Dr. Hall says Murder
Dr. Forkner says hemorrhage (I'd go with that)

19

In the United States, what is the number one cause of Pregnancy related mortality?

Cardiovascular disease

20

What are some possible explanations for the rising maternal mortality rate in the United States?

Rising numbers of the Cesarean sections
Rising number of patients with advanced maternal age and comorbidities

21

What is the safest and most effective medical intervention for labor pain?

Lumbar epidural

22

What are some things that tend to worsen labor pain?

OP Delivery (Occiput Posterior)-face up
Use of Oxytocin
Use of forceps

23

What are some alternative methods for pain relief during labor?

Hypnosis
Lamaze breathing
Acupuncture
Biofeedback

24

Why are intravenous opioids not the first choice for analgesia in the pregnant patient?

Higher risk for baby and mother
Not as effective as epidurals

25

The uterus and cervix are innervated from which levels?

T10-L1

26

Optimal analgesia for labor requires neural blockade at what levels in the first stage of labor? second stage?

1st Stage: T10 - L1
2nd Stage: T10 - S4

27

When does the spinal cord and 60% of patients?

L1

28

List some contraindication to neuraxial blockade

Patient refusal
Coagulopathy
Infection @ site
Presence of foreign bodies
Spinal cord pathologies
Thrombocytopenia
Untreated bacteremia or viremia
Complete dilation of cervix, 2nd stage labor

29

What is given before or during placement of an epidural to help prevent hypotension?

Fluid bolus

30

What is an acceptable platelet count for administering an epidural?

70-100,000

31

Why is platelet count important to know before doing an epidural?

Low platelet count = Increased risk for epidural hematoma

32

What must be monitored when placing an epidural?

Blood pressure every five minutes
Pulse ox

33

How are the Spinal cord ligaments different in a pregnant patient?

Softer

34

Regional anesthesia for Cesarean section requires what sensory level blockade?

T4

35

What is a classic test dose for an epidural and what will it tell you?

3mL = Lidocaine 1.5% (45mg) w/ 1:200000 epi

-Will tell you if catheter is intrathecal or intravascular

36

A positive test dose when placing an epidural will present with what symptoms if it is intrathecal? Intravascular?

Intrathecal: Immediate spinal block, numbness, difficulty moving legs

Intravascular: Increased HR, ringing in ears, numbness and tingling around mouth, metallic taste

37

What is true of epidural dosing?

Always incremental
Usually 3 or 5 mL boluses
Will see pain reduced on patient's face before patient endorses reduced pain

38

1st Stage labor pain is what kind of pain?

Visceral, not localized

39

The sensations of pain, touch, temperature and motor function are blocked in what order?

1. Pain / temperature
2. Touch
3. Motor

40

What are the risks and benefits of combined spinal epidural (CSE)?

Benefits: near immediate pain relief, confirmation of epidural space

Risks: slight increase in risk of spinal headache, paresthesia possible

41

What is the risk of a subdural catheter?

Cannot be placed intentionally

Risk = Potential for arachnoid rupture and intrathecal exposure to epidural medication

42

List some possible risks of epidural placement

Inadvertent dural puncture
Hypotension
Failed block
Intravascular or intrathecal injection
Nerve injury
Prolongation of 2nd stage labor
Epidural hematoma
Infection

43

What is the Ferguson reflex?

Urge to push

44

What is an inadvertent dural puncture?

"Wet tap"
-Epidural needle punctures the Dura and CSF comes through

45

What are the two options in the event of a wet tap?

A) Remove needle and place epidural at an adjacent level

B) Insert catheter into intrathecal space

46

What are the benefits and risks of a spinal catheter?

Benefits: no risk of further wet tap, reduced risk of headache, reliable, strong block

Risks: high spinal

47

What is the most common indication for a C-section?

Arrest of dilation

48

What are some indications for C-section

Arrested dilation
Nonreassuring fetal heart rate
Cephalopelvic disproportion
Prior C-section
Malpresentation
Prior surgery involving the uterine corpus
Arrest of descent

Uterine cord prolapse, placental abruption, placenta previa (rarer)

49

What is a normal fetal heart rate?

110 - 160 BPM

50

When monitoring fetal heart rate, the tracing is evaluated for what?

Decelerations (in relation to contractions)
Accelerations (related to fetal movement)
Variability (fine and coarse)

51

Early decelerations in fetal heart rate tracings are associated with what?

Head compression as fetus moves toward delivery

52

Very well decelerations can be associated with what?

Umbilical cord prolapse

53

Late decelerations are suggestive of what?

Fetal asphyxia following contractions, such that contractions are cutting off fetal blood supply

54

Why are fetal heart rate decelerations important?

One of the only measurable fetal responses to stress

55

What type of anesthetic is preferred for a C-section and why?

Neuraxial preferred

For General:
Mortality rate 17x greater
Increased pain
Fetal transfer of induction drugs
Risk of losing the mother's airway

56

What are some advantages and disadvantages of spinal anesthesia?

Advantages: better block, smaller needle, confirmation of placement

Disadvantages: procedure must finish before dose wears off, hypotension risk, not for MS patients

57

How can you create a denser epidural block?

Add narcotics

58

What is the first sign of hypotension?

Nausea and vomiting

59

What is the first drug given after the baby is born and the cord is clamped?

Pitocin (oxytocin)
20-40U in 1L bag

60

In the event of neonatal distress, what is the first priority?

The mother. Once she is stable the provider may assist with the neonate

61

Why is a stat C-section called?

Emergency C-section necessary to save life of the mother or fetus

62

What is the most important element of a stat C-section?

Time
Speed is Key

63

Is a stat C-section is performed under general anesthesia, what must be done to the patient prior to induction?

Prepped and draped so if induction goes badly fetus can be section and saved

64

What are some important considerations for general anesthesia for a stat C-section?

Always RSI
Limit opioids and volatile anesthetics until baby is out
Surgery starts when tube placement confirmed

65

At what point during a C-section do you consider redosing the epidural catheter?

1-1.5 hrs

66

If single shot spinal is wearing off, or there is a "hotspot" what other drug is often given to provide analgesia?

Ketamine

-be prepared for hallucinations