Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome Deck (14):

What is obstructive sleep apnoea?

- Recurrent episodes of patrial or complete upper (pharyngeal) airway obstruction during sleep, intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation


What is obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?

- OSA that manifests as excessive daytime sleepiness


What is apnoea?

- Reduction in airflow >90% of baseline for at least 10 seconds or 4% oxygen desaturation lasting ≥10 seconds


What is hypopnoea?

- Reduction in airflow >30% of baseline for at least 10 seconds, associated with >3% desaturation from pre-event baseline


What are the stages of the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)?

- AHI < 5 Normal

- AHI 5-15 Mild

- AHI 16-30 Moderate

- AHI >30 Severe

- ≥15 is diagnostic of OSA

- Calculated by adding apnoeas and hypopnoeas and dividing by total sleep time in hours


What is the oxygen desaturation index (ODI)?

- Number of times per hour of sleep that the O2 saturations falls ≥4% from baseline



What are respiratory effort related arousals?

- Arousals assocaited with a change in airflow that does not meet criteria for apnoea or hypopnoea


What are the symptoms of OSAS?

- Snoring

- Unrefreshing sleep

- Daytime fatigue

- Choking or gasping during sleep

- Impaired concentration

- Recurrent awakenings from sleep


What factors promote airway collapse?

- Negative pressure on inspiration

- Extraluminal positive pressure

- Fat deposition

- Small mandible


What factors promote airway potency?

- Pharyngeal dilator muscle contraction (genioglossus)

- Lung volume (longitudinal traction)


What does the limitied polysomnography study used to investigate OSAS involve?

- O2 saturations

- HR

- Flow

- Thoracic and abdominal effort

- Position


What does the full polysomnography study used to investigate OSAS add to the limited study?

- EEG (sleep staging)

- Video

- Audio

- Limb leads

- Snore


What are the treatment options for OSAS?


- Weight reduction

- Mandibular advancement splints

- Surgery (tracheostomy, bariatric surgery, jaw advancement, palatal surgery)


Does OSAS affect your ability to drive?

- Only need to stop if daytime somnolence