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english year 12 > occupation and power > Flashcards

Flashcards in occupation and power Deck (50):
1

what does a specialist lexicon mean?

a vocabulary that only particular people will understand and have knowledge about

2

when does lexis become special?

if denotation is different or narrower to the common meaning

3

what are two occupations that rely highly on specialised lexis?

law and medicine

4

what language is law based around?

latin and french

5

how can lexis lose their restrictions?

modern idioms that were once special lexical phrases restricted to certain occupations can now be used in a much broader term

6

what are examples of lexical terms that have lost their restricted use?

'bringing home the bacon'
'close shave'
'spinning the yarn'

7

how can a certain audience change someones language/use of an example?

teachers language may change upon their audience
children/other teachers/parents

8

which occupation is an example that includes many acronyms?

education

9

when was schooling made compulsory in uk?

1870

10

why do language and occupation intertwine?

due to the importance in society

11

why do occupations develop their own languages?

to make communication easier

12

how can discourse structure be linked to occupation?

certain occupations may have specific discourse structures that run throughout
teachers report

13

what is a discourse community?

a community in which all have knowledge about how to write occupational discourse

14

is discourse structure set in stone in an occupation?

no it is changed all the time through the creativity of employees, keeps basic structure throughout

15

who is the theorist linked to discourse communities?

john swales

16

what did john swales say about people in a discourse community?

they share common goals
use specialist lexis and discourse
they own genres of communication

17

how can grammar differ in occupation, include examples

depending on the job at hand grammar can be used differently in order to fulfil certain tasks
teachers - verbs
sales - nouns and adjectives

18

how can directives and imperatives differ in use depending on occupation?

imperatives will be used in an occupation that relies on instructing others in order to get tasks done (teacher)
where as declarative will be in in a job in which statements need to be used (sales)

19

what are pragmatics?

assumed meanings

20

what period was french important in England?

the nomadic period

21

why was french important in England and what has been left behind?

it was used in all courts in England, if you did not speak french then you had to pay for translator

22

why does french and Latin in courts create power?

the knowledge needed can separate insiders and outsiders

23

what is inference?

when people share unspoken understanding

24

how can knowledge create a hierarchy?

it may be that only specific roles in an occupation understand certain language, also certain occupations

25

why was Latin important to Latin?

due to its wide use in education, churches and courts, the remnants that still remain have a high status

26

who did the theory on conversational maxims?

grice

27

what are the conversational maxims?

quality (truthful), quantity (as much info needed and no more), relevance (relevant to convo) and manner (avoid ambiguity)

28

what are the two types of power in language?

influential
instrumental

29

what are the types of specific poe warning identified?
1999

political
social group - status of group
personal - occupation or role
legal - form of political

30

what is knowledge power?

power that comes from having he upper hand in knowledge
understand more than another person

31

what did fairclough 2001 identify?

asymmetrical power
uneuwal encounter discussion

32

what is asymmetrical power>

in a conversation power and status is higher in one person than another
rules of turn taking don't apply

33

what is meant by power behind discourse?

context behind a conversation such as someones status and authority

34

what is face?

avoiding threatening others face or allowing our own face to be threatened
face means the view of ourselves as worthy of others respect

35

what is phatic talk?

maintain a conversation through small talk

36

what is synthetic personalisation?

widely used in advertisement
create imagery of a personal relationship

37

what is FTA?

a face threatening act
removes the view of respect

38

what is politeness?

a way to avoid FTA

39

what is positive politeness?

demonstrate respect and avoid FTA

40

what is negative politeness?

apologetic, not imposing on other peoples face

41

what is parliamentary privilege?

a form of power in occupation that allows them to assert things that anywhere else they would be able to sue for libel
(damaginga others reputation)

42

what are illocutionary acts?

david crystals theory
the real actions performed by an utterance
what the language is doing

43

what are the illocutionary acts?

representative
directive - ask beg
commisive - future action i promise
expressive - attitude regret
declarative - alters a status , i sentence you

44

what are prices maxims?

quantity - too much or too little
quality - tell truth
relavance - relate to subject
manner - avoid ambiguity

45

what is discourse community?

john swales
a group that share common goals and use specialist lexis to communicate internally and require skills

46

what is jargon?

field specific lexis
PET BP

47

what is overt prestige?

standard language seen as desirable so move towards this

48

what is covert prestige?

move language away from the standard, show identity
when doctors speak to patients may not move away from jargon

49

how could naming lexis be used in power and occupation?

may show a relationship i.e. if they use last or first name

50

who came up with the idea of synthetic personalisation?

fairclough
use language to produce a relationship between them and the text receiver