Flashcards in occupation and power Deck (50):
what does a specialist lexicon mean?
a vocabulary that only particular people will understand and have knowledge about
when does lexis become special?
if denotation is different or narrower to the common meaning
what are two occupations that rely highly on specialised lexis?
law and medicine
what language is law based around?
latin and french
how can lexis lose their restrictions?
modern idioms that were once special lexical phrases restricted to certain occupations can now be used in a much broader term
what are examples of lexical terms that have lost their restricted use?
'bringing home the bacon'
'spinning the yarn'
how can a certain audience change someones language/use of an example?
teachers language may change upon their audience
which occupation is an example that includes many acronyms?
when was schooling made compulsory in uk?
why do language and occupation intertwine?
due to the importance in society
why do occupations develop their own languages?
to make communication easier
how can discourse structure be linked to occupation?
certain occupations may have specific discourse structures that run throughout
what is a discourse community?
a community in which all have knowledge about how to write occupational discourse
is discourse structure set in stone in an occupation?
no it is changed all the time through the creativity of employees, keeps basic structure throughout
who is the theorist linked to discourse communities?
what did john swales say about people in a discourse community?
they share common goals
use specialist lexis and discourse
they own genres of communication
how can grammar differ in occupation, include examples
depending on the job at hand grammar can be used differently in order to fulfil certain tasks
teachers - verbs
sales - nouns and adjectives
how can directives and imperatives differ in use depending on occupation?
imperatives will be used in an occupation that relies on instructing others in order to get tasks done (teacher)
where as declarative will be in in a job in which statements need to be used (sales)
what are pragmatics?
what period was french important in England?
the nomadic period
why was french important in England and what has been left behind?
it was used in all courts in England, if you did not speak french then you had to pay for translator
why does french and Latin in courts create power?
the knowledge needed can separate insiders and outsiders
what is inference?
when people share unspoken understanding
how can knowledge create a hierarchy?
it may be that only specific roles in an occupation understand certain language, also certain occupations
why was Latin important to Latin?
due to its wide use in education, churches and courts, the remnants that still remain have a high status
who did the theory on conversational maxims?
what are the conversational maxims?
quality (truthful), quantity (as much info needed and no more), relevance (relevant to convo) and manner (avoid ambiguity)
what are the two types of power in language?
what are the types of specific poe warning identified?
social group - status of group
personal - occupation or role
legal - form of political
what is knowledge power?
power that comes from having he upper hand in knowledge
understand more than another person
what did fairclough 2001 identify?
uneuwal encounter discussion
what is asymmetrical power>
in a conversation power and status is higher in one person than another
rules of turn taking don't apply
what is meant by power behind discourse?
context behind a conversation such as someones status and authority
what is face?
avoiding threatening others face or allowing our own face to be threatened
face means the view of ourselves as worthy of others respect
what is phatic talk?
maintain a conversation through small talk
what is synthetic personalisation?
widely used in advertisement
create imagery of a personal relationship
what is FTA?
a face threatening act
removes the view of respect
what is politeness?
a way to avoid FTA
what is positive politeness?
demonstrate respect and avoid FTA
what is negative politeness?
apologetic, not imposing on other peoples face
what is parliamentary privilege?
a form of power in occupation that allows them to assert things that anywhere else they would be able to sue for libel
(damaginga others reputation)
what are illocutionary acts?
david crystals theory
the real actions performed by an utterance
what the language is doing
what are the illocutionary acts?
directive - ask beg
commisive - future action i promise
expressive - attitude regret
declarative - alters a status , i sentence you
what are prices maxims?
quantity - too much or too little
quality - tell truth
relavance - relate to subject
manner - avoid ambiguity
what is discourse community?
a group that share common goals and use specialist lexis to communicate internally and require skills
what is jargon?
field specific lexis
what is overt prestige?
standard language seen as desirable so move towards this
what is covert prestige?
move language away from the standard, show identity
when doctors speak to patients may not move away from jargon
how could naming lexis be used in power and occupation?
may show a relationship i.e. if they use last or first name