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Flashcards in Oncology Deck (62):
1

Cancer incidence in both sex

Male: prostate>lung>colorectal>bladder
Female: breast>lung>colorectal>endometrial

2

Most prevalent cause of Cancer death for both sexes

Lung

3

Most significant risk factor for cancer

AGE

4

Second most common cancer

Breast

5

Diagnosis of cancer relies heavily on

Tissue biopsy

6

Curability of a tumor is usually inversely proportional to

Tumor burden

7

Cancer Staging based on PE, radiographs, isotopic scans, other imaging procedures

Clinical staging

8

Cancer staging based on information obtained during a surgical procedure( intrsoperative palpation, resection of regions lymph nodes and/ or +issue adjacent to the tumor, inspection and biopsy of Organs commonly involved in disease spread)

Pathologic Staging

9

most widely used staying System for Cancer

T N M ( tumor, node, metastasis) System

10

EC06 Grade For a patient capable only of limited self - care I confined to bed or chair more than 50% of waking hours

ECO6 Grade 3

11

Administration of chemotherapy or chemotherapy- radiation therapy BEFORE definitive surgery

Neoadjuvant therapy

12

most common sidereffects of Cancer Therapy

N and V, Febrile neutropenia, myelosuppression

13

>50% reduction in the sum of the products of the perpendicular diamete rs of all measurable lesions
Based on RECIST:>/30% decrease in the suns of the longest diameters of lesions

Partial response

14

Appearance of any new lesion or an increase of> 25% in the Sum Of the products of the perpendicular diameters ok all measurable lesions
REG ST:> Or= 20% increase in the Sums of the longest diameter

progressive disease

15

Tumor marker For Gestational trophoblastic disease, gonadal germ tumor

HCG

16

Tumor marker for Hepatocellular CA, GonadsI germ cell tumor

Alpha Fetoprotein

17

CA - 125

Ovarian cancer, some lymphomas

18

CA 19-9

Pancreatic, Colon, Breast

19

CD 30

Hodgkin's disease, anaplastic large cell lymphoma

20

C D 25

Hairy cell leukemia, Adult Tall leukemia/ lymphoma

21

most avoidable risk Factor for pulmonary, cardiovascular disease and cancer

Smoking Cessation

22

Cancers associated with smoking

Larynx, oropharynx, esophagus, kidney, bladder, pancreas stomach

23

Smoking cessation reduces lover lung cancer mortality by how much

30-50% compared to continued smoking

24

Decrease risk or colon and breast cancer

physical Activity

25

High Fat diet increases the risk for what cancer

Breast, colon, prostate, endometrium

26

BMl> 25kglm2

Increases Cancer Risk

27

induces non melanoma skin cancer (basal Cell And squamous cell)

Cumulative exposure to UV radiation

28

Linked to melanoma

Intermittent acute sun exposures and sun damage

29

Benefits of Sunscreens

Decrease the risk of actinic keratosis. precursor Of Squamous cell skin cancer

30

Increases lung Cancer incidence and mortality

Beta carotene

31

Most common causes Of SVC

malignant Tumors ( Lung cancer, lymphoma sand met astatic tumors)

32

most common etiology of SVC in young adults

Malignant lymphoma

33

Poor prognosticators for S V C

Cerebral and or laryngeal edema

34

most significant CXR Finding in SVC

Widened superior mediastinum
may have concurrent right sided pleural effusion

35

Provides the most reliable view of mediasfinal anatomy in SVC

chest CT scan

36

Life threatening complication of s V C

Tracheal Obstruction

37

Role of glucocorticoids in lymphoma

Only in Lymphoma but no benefit if with Lung LA

38

Primary tvestment For SVC

Radiotherapy

39

Most Frequent cancer etiologies associated with pericardial effusion

Thoracic malignancies: lung, breast, Lymphomas, Leukemia

40

Most helpful diagnostic test for patients with pericardial effusion associated cwith malignancy

2D echo

41

Best diagnostic yield For pericardial effusion in cancer patients

Cytology + pericardial and epicardial biopsy+ guided pericardioscopy

42

pericardial Fluid with malignant cells on cytology has

Poor survival at 7 weeks

43

Recurrence rate of pericardial effusion in cancer patients

20% reduced with sclerotherapy( bleomycin, mitomycin C tetracycline)

44

complication of drainage of pericardial effusion

post operative low cardiac output syndrome

45

most common Cause of MSCC

Lung Cancer

46

Most common site of MSCC

Thoracic spine ( 70% )

47

Tingling or electric sensation down the back and limbs upon neck Flexion or extension

Lhermitte's sign

48

Earliest radiologic finding of vertebral tumor

Erosion of the pedicles ( winking owl sign)

49

Imaging procedure of choice for MSCC

MRI

50

Initial Treatment of Choice for MSCC

Radiation therapy+glucocorticoid ( Dexa)

51

Most common cancer etiologics For Intestinal Obstruction

Colorectal, Ovarian

52

Most common cause of small bowel obstruction in cancer patients

Melanoma

53

Due to Infiltration of the mesentery or bowel muscle by tumor involvement of celiac plexus, or paraneoplastic neuropathy( SCLC)

intestinal bsendoobstruction

54

IgG antibodies reactive to neurons of the myenteric and submucosal plexuses of the jejunum and stomach

Paraneoplastic neuropathy

55

Most common metastatic tumors causing biliary obstruction

Gastric, colon, breast, lung cancers

56

persistent hypoglycemia in cancer patients

Pancreatic islet Cell tumors, tumors Of mesenchymal origin, hepatomas, or adrenocortical tumors

57

Features of Tumor Lysis Syndrome

Hyperuricemia, Kalemia, phosphatemia
Hypocalcemia

58

Drugs associated with HUS - TTP

Mitomycin, gemcitabine, cisplatin, bleomYcin, VEGF inhibitors

59

HUS as a complication usually occurs how many weeks after chemo

4-8

60

Features of HUS

microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure

61

Chemo drugs associated with hemorrhagic cystitis

Cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide

62

Treatment for chemo induced hemorrhagic cystitis

MESNA