Ophthalmology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ophthalmology Deck (70):
1

Fundoscopy appearance of diabetic retinopathy

Non-proliferative:
Micro aneurysms, haemorrhages, venous bleeding, hard exudates and cotton wool spots.
Proliferative: Neovascularisation

2

Treatment of diabetic retinopathy

Laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF?

3

Fundoscopy of hypertensive retinopathy

Arteriolar narrowing, silver wiring, AV nicking, retinopathy and papilloedema

4

Symptom of both retinal artery and vein occlusion

Sudden painless vision loss of all (central occlusion) or part (branch occlusion) of vision

5

Retinal artery occlusion fundoscopy

Swollen, pale retina and cherry red spot

6

Treatment for central retinal artery occlusion

Under 24 hours is a ocular massage and then vascular management (carotid doppler)

7

What is amaurosis fugax

Transient CRAO

8

Symptoms of amaurosis fugax

Transcient painless vision loss, curtain coming down and 5 mins with full recovery

9

Treatment of amaurosis fugax

Stroke referral and aspirin

10

Fundoscopy of retinal vein occlusion

Tortous dilated vessels and wide-spread retinal haemorrhages

11

Treatment for CRVO

Anti-VEGF

12

Symptoms for retinal detachment

Four Fs (floaters, flashes, fall in acuity and field loss)

13

Treatment for retinal detachment

Prompt surgical treatment

14

Symptoms of wet macular degeneration

Central scotoma and distortion

15

Symptoms of dry macular degeneration

Gradual decline in vision

16

What are drusens and what disease

Build up of waste below RPE and dry age related macular degeneration

17

What disease is associated with optic neuritis

MS

18

Symptoms of optic neuritis

Progressive visual loss, pain behind eye especially on movement and colour desaturation

19

Treatment of optic neuritis

Goes away itself

20

What is glaucoma

Injury to the optic nerve associated with elevated intraocular pressure

21

Describe acute angle closure glaucoma

Aqueous humour cannot leave the eye and causes increase pressure

22

Symptoms of acute angle closure glaucoma

Very painful, red eye, stony hard eye, nausea and vomting.

23

Who is acute angle more common in

Hypermetropics

24

Most common glaucoma

Open angle

25

Treatment of glaucoma

Beta blockers eye drops, prostaglandin eye drops, alpha-agonists and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

26

Painful!, red eye, keratic precipitates, hypopyon, photophobia, synachiae

Anterior uveitis

27

Diseases related to anterior uveitis

Reiters, UC, ank spon, sarcoid

28

Treatment of anterior uveitis

Topical steroids (pred forte) and mydriatics (cyclopentolate)

29

What is tepee sign

Lashes matted together in blepharitis

30

Most common blepharitis

Mixed (anterior and posterior)

31

What is the difference between anterior and posterior blepharitis

Anterior: around eye lashes, a reaction to staph aureus and associated with seborrhoeic dermatitis.
Posterior: Glands blocked by debris/skin flakes and associated with rosacea and seborrhoeic dermatitis

32

Treatment for blepharitis

Bathing/warm compresses, suplementary tears and oral doxycycline in worst cases

33

What is a chalazion, ho does it present and treatment.

Blocked meibomian gland that may become infected and is a firm round lump of eyelid. Treatment is hot compression, antibiotic massage and in clinic an incision and curettage under local anaesthetic

34

What is chorioretinitis

Inflammatory and exudative condition of the choroid and retina

35

Symptoms and signs of conjunctivitis

Red eye, foreign body, discharge, papillae or follicles, chemosis and pre-auricular glands

36

What is chemosis

Conjunctival oedema

37

How is neonatal conjunctivitis usually caused

STD from birth canal

38

What is the common organisms for bacterial conjunctivitis

Staph aureus

39

Tx of bacterial conjunctivitis

Chloramphenicol

40

Most common organism in viral conjunctivitis

Adenovirus

41

What is hutchinsons sign

Herpes zoster along the nasociliary nerve

42

Chlamydial conjunctivitis signs and symptoms

Red irrated eyes, subtarsal scarring, follicles

43

Treatment of chlamydial conjunctivitis

Oxytetracycline

44

What dye shows abrasions

Fluroscein

45

Treatment of corneal abrasion

Heal in a few days and deep may require antibiotics

46

Corneal ulcer symptoms

Very painful (needle like), photophobia, lacrimation, circumcorneal red eye

47

Where do autoimmune ulcers occur

Peripherally (limbus)

48

What diseases are associated with corneal ulcer

Thyroid, sjorgens, keratitis and vitamin A deficiency

49

What is dacryocystits

Inflammation of the lacrimal sac

50

Treatment of dacryocystitis

Antibiotic eye drops

51

What is endophthalmitis

Devastating infection inside the eye

52

Symptoms of endophthalmitis

Very painful, decreasing vision, very very red eye

53

Organism for endophthalmitis and how to diagnose

Staph epidermis with a aqueous/vitreous culture

54

Treatment of endophthalmitis

Intravitreal amikacin and vancomycin with a topical antibiotic (chlorophenicol)

55

Which diseases show blanching/non-blanching on phenylephrine

Episcleritis will blanch and scleritis vessels will not

56

What disease is epislceritis related to

Gout

57

Treatment of episcleritis

Oral NSAIDs

58

What is keratitis

A corneal infection

59

Treatment of bacterial keratitis

Admission for hourly drops and ofloxacin or gentamicin and cefuroxime

60

What is bacterial keratitis related to

Corneal pathology or contact lense wear

61

What is a dendritic ulcer

Herpes simplex keratitis

62

What should be avoided in dendritic ulcer and why

Steroids as it causes a corneal melt and perforation of the conrea

63

Treatment of dendrtitic ulcers

Antivirals (aciclovir)

64

What does adenoviral keratitis follow

URtI

65

What is keratoconjuncitivtis sicca

Dry eye (sjorgens)

66

What scan should be done in orbital cellulitis and why

CT to identify abscesses

67

What is pinguecula and how are they caused

Yellowish, raised thickening of the conjunctiva over the sclera and caused by Iv exposure

68

What is a pterygium

Benign growth of the conjuctiva

69

Treatment of stye

Hot compression and antibiotics

70

What is sympathetic opthalmia

Autoimmune granulomatous reaction to surgery or trauma in one eye and spreads to both eyes. Systemic steroids!