Option D.1 Human Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Option D.1 Human Nutrition Deck (26)
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What are nutrients?

chemical substances found in food that are used in our body. some essential, some non essential


When are nutrients essential?

Essential nutrients are sources that are the only possible source of nutrient. they cannot be synthesized by the body


What are examples of essential nutrients?

amino acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, some minerals, calcium, vitamins and water


Are minerals and ions needced in large or small quantities & why?

Small quantities because chemical structure is different.

Vitamins are organic compounds

Minerals derive from inorganic


Why are carbohydrates not part of the essential nutrient list?

Although they are important, there are no specifc carbohydrates that are essential


What are non-essential nutrients?

nutrients that can be used for the same purpose or because they can be made in the body from another nutrients


What are examples of non essential nutrients?

Carbohydrates (eg. glucose, starch, lipids)


Does an 'essential nutrient' refer to all substances the body needs?

no, only neccessary sustances that the body cannot synthesize by itself


Are dietry minerals essential?

yes. cannot be made by body but only smal quantity.


What are some major functions of minerals?

  • compose structure (eg. teeth, bones)
  • use in control of composition of body fluids
  • minor constituents of specific enzymes or components


How many amino acids are essential in human (cannot be synthesized)



What is an example of a conditionally essential nutrient. Explain.

In adults vitamin K is produced by metabolism of symbiotic bacteria in intestine.

infants do not have these bactera at birth. Given as supplementary injection


When does protein deficiency malnutrition occur?

shortage of one or more essential amino acids in the diet. body cannot make enough of the proteins that are needed


What does the lack of essential amino acids affect?

Production of proteins


Why may essential amino acids be lacking in an individual?

overall insufficient protein in diet/ imbalance in types of protein


What is a common condition associated with protein deficiency?

swelling in abdomen

  • lack of protein prevents blood plasma protein being produced
  • blood plasma helps with reabsorption of tissue fluid into blood capillaries
  • without blood plasma, edma (swelling) caused


In what amounts are vitamins and minerals needed?

tiny amounts, but are essential because most cannot be synthesized in the body


What tends to occur in diets without enough vitamins?

deficiency diseases


Do vitamins belong to a single group of chemical compounds?

No are complexed and categorized into Vitamin A, vitamin B etc. 


Which vitamins are essential, water soluble or fat soluble?

water soluble need to be consumed, and excess is lost to urine

fat soluble vitamin can be stored in body


Difference between vitamins and minerals


  • made in plants
  • compounds
  • organic e.g. Vitamin C


  • substances derived from rocks or found dissolved in water
  • elements in ionic form e.g. phosphate
  • inorganic e.g. iron, calcium


Give an example of a fat soluble vitamins

A (retinol)

  • source: fish liver oils, animal liver
  • function: required for normal immune system function and production of rhodopsin

E  (tocopherol)

  • Source: plant oils
  • function: antidioxide


What are the fat soluble vitamins?

A, D, E, K


Give an example of a water soluble vitamin

B9 folic acid

  • source: liver, white fish
  • function: enzymes in DNA replication

C (ascorbic acid)

  • source: potatoes, green vegetables, fruits
  • function: antidioxidant, coenzyme in protein metabolism,


What are water soluble vitamins?

B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12


Why does the body need  vitamin C?

  • helps protect body from infection and is important in keeping bones, teeth and gums healthy for synthesis of the protein collagen
  • shortage of vitamin causes deficiency disease called scurvey