Option D.3 Function of the Liver Flashcards Preview

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Give an example of how the liver regulates nutrients in blood

- liver maintains correct amount of glucose
when glucose level is high, liver releases insulin;
to stimulate hepatocytes to take up glucose;
to convert to glycogen;
when glucose level low, hepatocytes are stimulated;
to break down stored glycogen;
to release glucose


What occurs when transferring receptors are bound?

receptor iron complex enter cell and iron is either incorporated into heme/ or transferred to a storage molecule called ferritin


What do developing red blood cell have high levels of?

transferrin receptors


What is transferrin?

protein bound to iron


What happens iron is absorbed by small intestine?

tranferred to blood bound to a protein


Where is hemoglobin synthesized in?

red blood cells


When are iron/vitamin A/ vitamin D released into blood when stored in lover?

deficit in blood


What nutrients can be stored in excess in the liver?

glucose, when high causes insulin to stimulate hepatocytes to take up glucose and store as glycogen;
iron; Vitamin A; Vitamin D; vitamins are fat soluble


What happens to excess amino acids?

deaminated in the liver; organic acid part is removed/respired or converted to fat/carbohydrate


can the body store amino acids if in excess?



When proteins are broken down what do they contribute to?

pool of amino acids in blood plasma for new synthesis


What are examples of proteins that are produced for export from liver cells?

fibrinogen, globulins, albumin, prothrombin


What is the effect of having the liver adjust level of amino acids?

regulated to support the constant synthesis of proteins that can function as enzymes/components of membranes /structural components


What does the liver cell adjust as blood passes the sinusoids (supplies daily demand for protein)?

amino acids


What happens to components of red blood cells by liver?

broke down when old and recycled


What is bile used for?

break down fats into droplets that disperse for effective breakdown by digestive enzymes in duodenum


What is surplus cholesterol from the liver converted into?

bile salts (emulsifies the bile)


What does the liver produce other than bile?



Explain the role of liver in hemoglobin breakdown

Kupffer cells take up erythrocytes through phagocytosis;
hemoglobin is broken into globin and heme;
globin is hydrolysed;
breakdown of heme causes iron to attach to carrier protein;
iron stored or exported to bone marrow (via blood plasma) for new red blood cell;
heme converted into bile pigments


What are erythrocytes?

red blood cells


What are Kupffer cells?

phagocytes attached to walls of sinusoids that take up old red blood cells; contain many lysosome; specialized leucocyte


What are lovules?

rows of hepatocytes


Give an example of how the liver removes toxins

alcohol is oxidized to become carboxylic acid; becomes part of metabolites; oxidized to CO2 and water


What are bile channels?

bile from liver flows through (between liver cell rows but isolated from blood supply); merge into bile ducts to carry to gall bladder


What is one of the major functions of the liver?

remove toxin;
break down of red blood cells;
Wstabilization of quantity of nutrients circulating blood; regulation through storage and release of nutrients when needed


How does the blood from the heptic portal vein differ from normal blood?

- are wider
- is low pressure , deoxygenated blood
- varies in quantity of nutrients depending on food and timing
- contain kuppfer cells (brekadown haemoglobin for recycling)


After arterioles join with sunsoids what occurs?

Sinusoids merge with velues that lead to hepatic vein


How do sinuiods differ from liver cells?

sinuids do not have walls separating blood from liver cells (blood and liver cells are in direct contact); allows proteins to enter /leave blood


What are hepatocytes?

liver cells


What are sinuiods?

blood filled channels (like capillaris)where arterial blood mixed with blood from heptic portal flows through