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Flashcards in Optional : Islam Deck (114)
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1
Q

What are the six articles of faith?

A
  1. The unity of Allah (Tawhid)
  2. Belief in Angels
  3. Books of Allah
  4. Faith in prophets
  5. Belief in the day of Judgement and life after death
  6. Belief in Allah’s decree and predestination
2
Q

What is Tawhid?

A

There is only one God - Allah

3
Q

What do they believe about angels? (Malaikah)

A

Only angels can bring the word of Allah to man. The Angel Jibril (Gabriel) communicated the Qur’an to Muhammad.

4
Q

What do they believe about the books of Allah?

A
  • The Qur’an is the most important book in Islam
  • Qur’an as a word means recitation.
  • This is because originally it was spoken and shared orally.
  • Only later was it written down.
5
Q

What do they believe about the prophets?

A
  • Muhammad is the most important prophet. His name means Highly Praised.
  • Muslims believe that Muhammad received God’s final revelation to mankind.
6
Q

What do they believe about the Day of Judgement?

A

The good will be sent to paradise and the wicked to hell.

7
Q

What do they believe about Allah?

A

Every event is controlled by God.

8
Q

What are the 5 roots of Usul al-Din?

A
  1. Tawhid (oneness)
  2. ‘Adl (Divine Justice)
  3. Nubuwwah (Prophethood)
  4. Imamah (Sucessors of Muhammad)
  5. Mi’ad (Day of Judgement and Resurrection.

Shi’ah Muslims believe this.

9
Q

What do Shi’ah Muslims believe about Tawhid?

A

God is not made up of parts. He is one.

10
Q

What do Shi’ah Muslims believe about Nubuwwah (Prophethood)?

A

They accept the truth of Muhammad’s prophecies.

11
Q

What do Shi’ah Muslims believe about ‘Adl (Divine Justice)?

A

Allah is just and can do no wrong. Humans are accountable to God.

12
Q

What do Shi’ah Muslims believe about the Imamah (Successors of Muhammad)?

A

They accept the doctrine and authority of 12 official leaders (Imams) who alone have the right to lead Muslims after the death of Muhammad.

13
Q

What do Shi’ah Muslims believe about Mi’ad (The Day of Judgement)?

A
  • All will be resurrected after death to be judged by God.
  • The good will enter paradise and the bad will be sent to hell.
14
Q

What similarities are there between Sunni and Shi’a Beliefs?

A
  • Both believe in the absolute unity of Allah.
  • Both believe that Muhammad is Allah’s prophet.
  • Both believe that a day will come where all are judged and the righteous go to heaven and the bad to hell.
15
Q

What are the key differences between Sunni and Shi’a Beliefs?

A
  • Sunni Muslims believe that Muhammad alone was given knowledge from Allah, so Muslims must emulate the life of the Prophet
  • Shi’a Muslims believe that Allah gave knowledge to the first caliph, ‘Ali, and that this knowledge has been passed down from imam to imam.
16
Q

What are Sunni Muslims?

A
  • Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam.
  • In the Sunni traditions, the Imam is the prayer leader and the Khalifah is a political head of state.
  • Sunni’s believe that the leaders following Muhammad should be elected.
  • Abu Bakr (a friend of Muhammad) was the first caliph (Khalifah).
17
Q

Who are Shi’ah Muslims?

A
  • Shi’a’s are a smaller group than Sunnis.
  • Shi’a Muslims believe that the leader should be from Muhammad’s family.
  • Ali, the fourth Sunni Caliph, is seen as the first Shi’i Imam and the only legitimate leader, appointed by Muhammad.
  • When Ali died in 661CE the imamate was passed down through succession.
18
Q

What is Shi’ism?

A
  • Twelver Shi’ism is a branch of Shi’a Islam who believe that there are 12 appointed leaders.
  • The leader is the Imam, who has help from Allah in leading the religion. The final leader is alive but hidden and will only be revealed when Allah decides it’s the right time.
  • Isma’ili (Seveners) do not recognise the election of leaders and only believe in Imams appointed by Muhammad or Allah.
19
Q

How do Muslims acknowledge that God is the greatest being?

A
  • Muslims acknowledge this idea in prayer and throughout the day each time they say “Allah Akbar”, which means “God is the greatest”.
20
Q

How many names do Muslims have for God?

A

There are 99 names for God.

21
Q

Why do Muslims have more than one name for God?

A
  • Each name reveals something different about Allah.
  • Muslims try and learn all these names so that they can better understand Allah.
22
Q

Name three qualities of Allah

A
  1. omnipotent (all-powerful)
  2. omniscient (all-knowing)
  3. omnipresent (everywhere at the same time)
23
Q

What do Muslims believe about Allah and justice?

A
  • Allah is just and beneficent (Adalat).
  • Allah judges all people.
  • In daily prayers, Muslims refer to God as merciful. God understands human suffering and knows how difficult it is to live according to God’s demands.
24
Q

What do Muslims believe about Allah’s presence in the world?

A
  • Allah is both immanent and transcendent
  • Although Muslims believe that God is the greatest, He is also close to his people.
  • The way to describe this is to say that God is immanent (near) and also transcendent (beyond this world).
  • Only God can be both at once.
  • God is not restricted or limited by the physical world.
25
Q

What does the word Islam mean?

A
  • The word Islam means obedience.
  • Muslims believe that they should peacefully surrender to the will of Allah in their lives and that following the will of Allah will bring peace.
26
Q

What does the word Allah mean?

A
  • God is One and only.
  • There is nothing else like God.
  • No one can picture God and there is nothing to compare Him to.
27
Q

How do Muslims express their belief that there is only one God?

A
  • The Shahadah.
  • They say “There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.”
28
Q

Why are there no images of Allah?

A
  • In a Mosque, there are no images of Allah.
  • Believing in more than one God is a big sin.
  • This is the only sin that Allah will not forgive.
  • It is disrespectful
29
Q

What do Muslims say before doing something and why?

A
  • Muslims will say ‘Inshallah’, which means God willing.
  • They are hoping that what they want to do is also the will of God, which would mean that it is a good thing for them to be doing.
30
Q

What do Muslims say about Muhammad in the Shahadah?

A
  • The 2nd half of the Shahadah says that Muhammad is God’s prophet.
  • Muhammad should NOT be confused with Allah.
  • Muhammad is respected as a prophet but not worshipped.
31
Q

What is the proper name for Angels in Islam?

A

(Malaikah)

32
Q

Why are Angels important?

A
  • They are the only beings who can receive the word of God directly.
  • Angels are one of the main six articles of faith for Sunni Muslims.
33
Q

Can you give some features of angels?

A
  • Allah created Angels from Light.
  • They are purely spiritual beings who cannot sin as they do not have free will.
34
Q

What are some duties of angels?

A
  • Some angels guard and protect humans from birth to death.
  • Some note down all human behaviour in a book of deeds for the Day of Judgement.
  • The angel of death (Izra’il) has helpers who take people’s souls to Allah.
  • Some angels take people to paradise or hell after the judgement.
35
Q

How do angels interract with humans?

A
  • Angels are fully involved in the lives of humans.
  • They can communicate with humans.
  • They can appear like humans if they are being sent with a message from Allah.
  • This happened to Ibrahim (Abraham) and Maryam (Mary)
36
Q

Who is the angel Jibril?

A
  • Jibril, who is known to Christians and Jews as Gabriel or Gavriel.
  • He is the most trusted angel to bring God’s message to people and in particular to Muhammad.
  • Jibril communicated God’s words (the Qur’an) to Muhammad.
37
Q

Who is the angel Mik’ail?

A
  • Mik’ail, known to Christians and Jews as Michael.
  • Angel of mercy who rewards good people for their behaviour on earth.
  • He’s also tasked with sending blessings in the form of rain, lightning and thunder.
38
Q

Who is the angel Izra’il?

A
  • Izra’il is the angel who will announce the Day of Judgment by blowing his trumpet.
  • Izra’il has helpers who take people’s souls to Allah.
39
Q

Can you name any prophets which are shared across religions?

A

Many of the prophets in the Hebrew and Christian Bibles are shared by Islam too.

  • Abraham (Ibrahim)
  • Moses (Musa)
  • Jesus (Isa)
  • Adam
40
Q

What is RiSalah?

A
  • Risalah is the belief that prophets bring the word of God to mankind.
  • Becoming a prophet is a gift from God.
41
Q

Why are prophets important?

A

Because Allah is so beyond human understanding, the prophets play an important role in helping mankind to understand God.

42
Q

What do Muslims believe about prophets?

A
  • Muslims believe that there have been over 120,000 prophets.
  • Only 25 of these prophets are mentioned in the Qur’an.
  • These important prophets are called messengers.
43
Q

Who is Adam the prophet?

A
  • Muslims believe that Adam was the first prophet.
  • He was the first man, created by God in his own image.
  • He is believed by some to have first built the Ka’aba, (House of God).
44
Q

Who is Abraham the prophet?

A
  • The ancestor of Muhammad.
  • Ibrahim was tested by God and proved his faith by being prepared to sacrifice his first son, Ishmael.
  • Ibrahim rejected worshipping more than one God.
45
Q

Why is Muhammad significant as a prophet?

A
  • All previous prophets prepared the way for Muhammad.
  • Muhammad is the greatest and final prophet
  • His teachings and practices in the Hadith are the basis of Islamic law.
  • Teachings given to Muhammad were organised and have been written to form the Qur’an.
46
Q

What do Sunni Muslims believe about free will?

A
  • Some Sunni Muslims believe that as God’s will is supreme, He controls everything - including what everyone does.
  • However, free will is still possible as humans don’t know what Allah wants from them - humans find free will in working out what Allah wants.
47
Q

What do Shi’a Muslims believe about Free will?

A
  • Allah knows everything that is going to happen
  • His knowledge does not impact human choice.
  • As a result of this belief, Allah will judge all people on the Day of Judgment for the choices they have made throughout their lives.
48
Q

What is the name for life after death?

A

Akhirah

49
Q

What do Muslims believe about life after death?

A
  • Death is not the end of existence but the start of a new one.
  • After the body dies, Muslims believe that there is some form of consciousness even in the grave.
50
Q

What do Muslims believe happens once you die ‘the barrier’?

A

While a Muslim is in the grave, Allah sends two angels to question them about their beliefs. If they answer correctly they will be shown the rewards that are to come. If they deny the articles of faith, they will be shown the punishments that will come to them.

51
Q

What do Muslims believe about the Day of Judgement?

A
  • Only Allah knows when the Day of Judgment will be.
  • The angel Israfil will blow the trumpet.
  • The world as we know it will be destroyed.
  • Everyone who has ever lived will be brought back to life and judged by God.
  • People will be given new physical bodies and everyone will receive a record of their life story (written by the angels).
52
Q

What is Jannah?

A

Heaven or paradise.

.

53
Q

What is Jahannam?

A

Hell is a place of punishment and torture for those who rejected Allah and practised evil.

54
Q

What do they believe about suffering?

A
  • Suffering as temporary.
  • This is because a reward of eternity in paradise will make things right for them.
55
Q

What are the 5 pillars of Sunni Islam?

A
  1. Hajj (Pilgrimage)
  2. Salah (Prayer)
  3. Sawm (Fasting)
  4. Zakah (Charity)
  5. Shahadah (Declaration of Faith)
56
Q

What are the Ten Obligatory Acts of Shi’i Islam?

A
  1. Salah (Prayer)
  2. Zakah (Charity)
  3. Sawm (Fasting)
  4. Hajj (Pilgrimage)
  5. Tawallah (To be loving towards the friends of God)
  6. Nahi Anil Munkar (Discouraging people from doing what is wrong)
  7. Amr-bil-maruf (Encouraging others to be good)
  8. Jihad (Struggle to keep the faith and to defend Islam)
  9. Tabarra (Avoid the enemies of God)
  10. Khums (20% tax on income after all personal expenses)
57
Q

What is the shahadah?

A

The most basic belief for Muslims is about the oneness of God and that Muhammad is His prophet.

58
Q

Why might people say the shahadah?

A
  • If a person wishes to become a Muslim they must recite this phrase three times in front of witnesses.
  • Daily prayers.
  • Before a person dies they will try and say the Shahadah one final time.
59
Q

What do shi’a Muslims add to the shahadah?

A

They include an extra phrase about Ali.

60
Q

Is Islam monotheistic?

A
  • Yes
  • ‘There is no deity except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise’
61
Q

What is Salah?

A
  • Salah means daily prayers.
  • Prayer is important for Muslims as it strengthens their relationship with Allah.
62
Q

Why is prayer important for community?

A
  • Prayer brings the Muslim community together in unified worship.
  • Wherever a Muslim goes he/she will recognise the prayers and will feel part of the community.
63
Q

When do Muslims pray?

A
  • Sunni Muslims pray 5 times a day
  • Shia Muslims pray three times a day.
  • The times for prayer are based on the hours of sunrise and sunset.
64
Q

How do Muslims pray?

A
  • Muslims always wash themselves before they pray
  • They pray in the direction of Mecca.
  • In Mosques, men and women pray separately
  • This prayer is led by the Imam.
65
Q

What are are the 5 Daily Prayers?

A
  1. Fajr - just before sunrise
  2. Zuhr - just after midday
  3. Asr - afternoon
  4. Maghrib - just after sunset
  5. Isha - night
66
Q

Muslims are careful to prepare themselves before praying by washing. What is this washing called?

A

Wudu

67
Q

What is Rak’ah?

A
  • The daily prayers are composed of set recitations and action sequences.
  • The first chapter of the Qur’an is recited standing tall.
  • Three times “glory be to me Lord who is the greatest” is said in a bowing position.
  • Bowing shows humility and respect to God’s greatness.
  • Standing tall once again, a praise for God is said.
68
Q

What do Muslims do once they have said Rak’ah?

A
  • Whilst kneeling, Muslims turn their faces so they are kneeling on the ground with face, hands and toes touching the floor.
  • This shows that a person has complete obedience to God.
  • In a sitting position, all say “God is the greatest”.
  • Muslims then turn their faces right and left saying “peace be upon you” as well as the mercy and blessings of God.
69
Q

What is the Jummah prayer?

A
  • Friday midday is a special time for Jummah prayer.
  • All male Muslims are expected to attend the Mosque.
  • The Imam will give a sermon.
  • This will include quotes from the Qur’an reminding Muslims of their duties to Allah and the community.
  • Schools and places of work will shut for the time of prayer and will reopen after prayers have concluded.
70
Q

What is Sawm?

A
  • Sawm is fasting during the month of Ramadan.
  • The focus in Ramadan is on fasting, charity and being subservient to the will of Allah.
71
Q

What is Ramadan?

A
  • Ramadan is the ninth month in the Muslim calendar.
  • Tradition teaches that it was during this month that the angel Jibril began to reveal the Qur’an to Muhammad.
  • This is a very important month for spiritual growth.
  • The Koran will often be divided into daily readings and completed during the 30 days.
72
Q

When do Muslims fast during Ramadan?

A
  • Fasting takes place during daylight hours.
  • Muslims will get up very early to eat before sunrise.
  • In the UK this can be before 4 am in the summer. They will eat and drink enough to keep them going till sunset.
  • In the UK this can be around 9:30 pm in the summer.
  • The fast is broken often with a glass of water and a date.
  • After that, a meal is eaten with family and friends.
73
Q

Who does not need to fast?

A
  • Children will practice fasting but are not obligated until they have reached
  • Muslims who are not physically able to fast are not required to do so.
  • If they can make up the fasting at a later time they should.
  • Old people
  • Pregnant ladies
74
Q

What is the Night of Power?

A
  • The Night of Power is a festival with no fixed date during the month of Ramadan.
  • Tradition says it’s the night when Muhammad received his revelation.
  • Muslims will try to spend the entire night praying and studying the Qur’an.
75
Q

What is Zakah?

A
  • The Arabic word Zakah means to purify or cleanse.
  • The Qur’an is clear about who should receive Zakah: the poor and needy, and those in debt.
  • Charity
76
Q

Why do Muslims do Zakah?

A
  • If a Muslim can afford to, he/she must give 2.5% of their income to charity.
  • This amount is not written in the Qur’an, but Muslim scholars have taught that 2.5% is the right amount to give.
  • Because Ramadan is an important month for spiritual growth, many Muslims will save their money and give it during this month.
77
Q

Why do Muslims give to Charity?

A
  • Some of our possessions must be given to those who don’t have anything.
  • It teaches a person not to be selfish.
  • Using wealth in the way the Allah wants fulfils a religious duty and helps a Muslim remember Allah throughout the day.
78
Q

What is sadaqah?

A
  • This can include giving personal time.
  • In Shi’a Islam, one of the Ten Obligatory acts is Khums.
  • The word means 1/5.
  • This duty obligates Shi’a Muslims to give 20% on excess of all earnings after personal spending has been deducted.
  • Some of the money collected goes to Shi’a religious institutions and the rest goes to poor families.
79
Q

When does Hajj happen?

A
  • Hajj should be made at least once in life.
  • Some wealthy members in a community might sponsor the less wealthy members.
  • It occurs during the final month of the Islamic calendar Dhul-Hijjah.
  • Between the 8th-12th, around 3 million people take this journey.
80
Q

What is the history of Hajj?

A
  • Ibrahim was commanded by Allah to take his son Ishmael and his wife Hajira to Arabia, and leave them there with bread and water.
  • Hajira prayed to Allah for help.
  • Ishmael kicked the ground and water spurted out of the ground - Mecca developed around this water source.
81
Q

What happened at the first Hajj?

A
  • Allah commanded him to build a monument to him.
  • Ibrahim built the Ka’aba which became a place of worship and the destination of the Hajj pilgrimage.
  • When Muhammad came back from Medina to Mecca he destroyed the idols that he been placed at the Kaba.
  • That journey back to Mecca is viewed as the first Hajj.
82
Q

How do men prepare for Hajj?

A
  • Muslims must purify themselves through ritual washing, prayer, and wearing special Ihram clothing.
  • Men wear two sheets of white clothing (as a sign of purity).
  • Women have strict modesty laws, so they wear clothes that cover their bodies.
83
Q

What is the purpose of Hajj?

A
  • It is transformative.
  • Time to build a stronger relationship with Allah.
  • They become more humble and less obsessed with material comforts.
  • They develop self-discipline
84
Q

How is the Ka’aba used during Hajj?

A
  • The Ka’aba is circled anti-clockwise seven times.
  • Muslims try and touch the black stone as they walk around.
  • As they go around they say a short prayer: “here I am, oh lord, at your service. Praise and blessings to you”.
85
Q

Where do they walk during Hajj?

A
  • They walk between the two hills (Safa and Marwah) this is done seven times.
  • They walk this circuit seven times.
  • Pilgrims collect water from the well of Zamzam.
86
Q

What happens at Mina during Hajj?

A
  • There is a 13 mile walk or ride to Arafat with a night stop over at Mina.
  • During the night, they pray and read the Qur’an as preparation for the next day’s rituals.
  • At Mina there are three walls of stone which represent the temptation and the devil.
  • On day 10 the stones are thrown at the walls which symbolises rejection of the devil and temptations.
87
Q

What is Arafat?

A
  • Arafat is the site of Muhammad’s last sermon.
  • Pilgrims believe that whoever completes standing the whole afternoon at Arafat will have their sins forgiven.
88
Q

What is the final part of Hajj?

A
  • Pilgrims return to Mecca and walk around the Ka-aba seven more times.
  • They return to Mina for two nights reflecting on the experience and thinking about Allah.
89
Q

What is greater jihad ?

A
  • The struggle of every Muslim to obey Allah.
  • Individual, inner struggle.
90
Q

What is the lesser jihad?

A
  • Concerned with fighting injustices (e.g poverty and illness)
  • The struggle to defend Islam against outside threats.
  • This may be peaceful, e.g. evangelising
  • Non-peaceful jihad warfare can only be used as self-defence.
  • Jihad against civilians (non-soldiers; i.e. children, the sick or the elderly) is unlawful.
91
Q

What are the two main Festivals for Sunnis and Shi’as?

A
  • Eid al-Adha
  • Eid al-Fitr
92
Q

What is Eid al-Adha?

A
  • Commemorates complete obedience to Allah
  • Ibrahim was about to sacrifice his son to Allah when God intervened.
  • It lasts 4 days
93
Q

What happens during Eid al-adha

A
  • People often exchange presents.
  • Muslims attend a service in mosques, which focuses on the importance of obedience to Allah.
  • Muslim families often sacrifice an animal and divide it into three parts: one to their family, one to their relatives, and one to the poor.
94
Q

What is Eid al-Fitr?

A
  • Marks the end of Ramadan.
  • Celebrates the completion of the fourth pillar by fasting.
95
Q

What happens during Eid al-Fitr?

A
  • There are prayers and a sermon either in or outside the mosque.
  • There is a meal to break the fast and family and friends exchange presents.
96
Q

What is Ashura?

A
  • This festival is mostly important for Shi’a Muslims
  • Sunnis think of it as a day of atonement.
97
Q

How do people prepare for Ashura?

A
  • The ten days leading up to Ashura are a period of mourning.
  • Shi’a Muslims wear black during this period.
98
Q

What happens on the Day of Ashura?

A
  • Commemorates the death of Husayn.
  • He died in battle
  • A Passion narrative has developed around his death.
  • Fasting on Ashura is not compulsory as Muhammad decreed that Muslims should observe sawm on Ramadan.
99
Q

What is Eid-al-Ghadir?

A
  • Shi’as believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib was appointed by Allah to be the religious authority after the Prophet
100
Q

Why do some Muslims believe in Eid-al-Ghadir?

A
  • In 632CE on Muhammad’s return with his followers from Mecca, some important Quranic verses were revealed.
  • The verses were revealed when Muhammad and his followers reached Ghadir Khumm.
101
Q

How is the Qur’an set out?

A
  • The Qur’an is divided into surahs (chapters)
  • The chapters are made up of verses known as ayat (signs).
102
Q

What is the Qur’an?

A

The Qur’an is the revealed word of God.

103
Q

What is the Hadith?

A

The hadith is the record of the way that the Prophet Muhammad lived his life.

104
Q

What is in the Hadith?

A
  • The hadith is a record of how Muhammad lived.
  • It is the record of the verbal traditions of what the Prophet said or did.
  • The Hadith is made up of inspired sayings and is considered important
105
Q

How do Muslims read the Qur’an?

A
  • The Qur’an is used for public and private worship and is seen as a handbook for life.
  • In Arabic it is read from right to left.
106
Q

How must the Qur’an be treated?

A
  • The Qur’an must be kept on the highest shelf in a house.
  • The Qur’an must be wrapped in silk cloth to keep it clean
  • It must never be placed on the floor.
  • Muslims must not talk, eat or drink when reading the Qur’an.
107
Q

What happened during Muhammad’s call?

A
  • During the month of Ramadan in 611CE, Muhammad was meditating in a cave.
  • The angel Jibril order him to read, but Muhammad could not. He asked him three times and as Jibril continued to speak Muhammad repeated the words.
108
Q

What is Shari’ah law?

A
  • The religious law of Islam, derived from the religious principles of the religion.
  • Based on the teaching of the Qur’an and Hadith
109
Q

What is Fiqh?

A

The development of the Shari’ah through human interpretation (ijtihad) of the Quran and the Sunnah.

110
Q

Who is the Imam?

A
  • The imam in the Shi’a tradition is a man of God.
  • Imams have been chosen because they are perfect examples and role models for humanity who are free from committing sin.
111
Q

What is the role of the imam?

A
  • Leads all formal prayers in a mosque
  • An imam is usually attached to a mosque and they are the ones who give the sermon and lead the Friday prayers.
  • The name ‘imam’ is also used to mean a religious scholar or authority.
112
Q

How does a Mosque get used?

A
  • The mosque has a function for the community
  • A place of prayer.
  • A school where children learn Arabic and how to recite the Qur’an is attach to the mosque.
  • Prayer halls are used for also teaching and funerals but not weddings.
  • The mosque may also have a mortuary for laying and preparing the dead.
  • It may also have community rooms, kitchens and is sometimes used as a law court.
113
Q

What is Calligraphy?

A

Used to express belief in mosques and other places in Islam.

114
Q

What do Muslims think about idolatry and use of images in worship?

A
  • Islam is against idolatry.
  • There are no pictures, statues or images in a mosque.
  • Shirk is the terrible sin of regarding something as equal to Allah.
  • To make an image of Allah would be shirk and to make an image of anything living would be an insult to Allah.