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Flashcards in Optional: Philosophy and Ethics Deck (108)
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1
Q

What are the two types of revelation?

A
  • General or natural revelation
  • Special revelation.
2
Q

What is revelation?

A
  • To reveal something is to uncover something that was previously hidden.
  • Catholics mean the way in which God has made himself known to humans.
3
Q

What is General or Natural Revelation?

A
  • Revelation that can be accessed by everyone as it comes to us through the world, often in nature.
  • Christianity says that we can know of the infinite through what God shows us in the finite world.
4
Q

What is special revelation?

A
  • Most often found in the Bible.
  • In the Old Testament, there are accounts of God acting in special ways through his special chosen people in preparation for Jesus’ coming.
  • Some Christians believe that God is constantly revealing himself through the Church Teachings.
5
Q

What arguments are there against visions?

A
  • Many suggest that the visions such as those of Joan of Arc were the result of mental or physical illness.
  • For atheists and humanists, visions are regarded as logically impossible. - They often attribute them to an altered state of mind, perhaps due to drugs or fasting.
6
Q

What is a vision?

A
  • A vision can be a private form of revelation.
  • They do not always tell us something clearly about the nature of God.
7
Q

What are the two main types of visions?

A
  • Corporeal - people physically see something
  • Imaginative - people see something in their imagination or dreams
8
Q

Why are visions important?

A
  • A persons faith can grow stronger, or the people around them can also grow stronger in faith
  • Could be receiving a calling from God
  • God is offering guidance
9
Q

Give an example of a vision in the Old Testament

A

The Burning Bush - Moses

10
Q

Give an example of a vision in the New Testament

A
  • The Transfiguration of Jesus.
  • It proves that Jesus was the Son of God.
11
Q

Can you give an example of a non-biblical vision?

A
  • Joan of Arc, born in France, had visions as a teenager.
  • She is said to have seen Saint Margaret, the Archangel Michael and Saint Catherine of Alexandria, who then told her to support the King, and recover France from the domination of England during the Hundred Years’ War.
12
Q

Why might a vsion lead to people believing in God?

A
  • They can give great strength and faith
  • There are many examples that allow people to interpret visions in a religious way
  • Swinburne claims that if God exists we would expect him to make contact on occasion.
13
Q

Can you give examples of biblical miracles?

A
  • Old Testament - Parting of the Red Sea
  • In the New Testament, Jesus performs many miracles
  • E.G - Feeding of the 5000 or Jesus turns water into wine.
14
Q

Can you give non biblical examples of miracles?

A
  • Lourdes
  • In 1858, St Bernadette had 18 visions of the Virgin Mary who said a church should be built on the rock over the grotto.
  • Pilgrims go to wash themselves and pray for healing.
  • There have been 70 accepted cases of miracles associated with Lourdes so far.
15
Q

What would atheists say about miracles?

A
  • Miracles can be scientifically explained.
  • This means that they would not provide accurate evidence for the existence of God.
  • They could be coincidences
  • Just because something is unexplainable - doesn’t mean God is the answer.
16
Q

Why might miracles lead to the existence of God?

A
  • They are proof of God
  • They may feel they have had direct contact with God
  • If there are no other explanations even non-religious people might believe it.
17
Q

What is a religious experience?

A

A feeling of the presence of God which fills a person with awe and sometimes fear

18
Q

What is Numinous?

A

Having a mysterious, spiritual or holy quality

19
Q

How might someone know they are having a religious experience?

A
  • It may occur in a religious building, or they may feel something when looking at the natural world.
  • They may feel an awareness of something greater than them
  • They may feel like they are beyond the natural world.
  • It may build faith.
20
Q

Is religious experience revelation?

A
  • No, Jesus was the final revelation so religious experiences cannot be.
  • Religious experiences could be a further explanation of Jesus as the final revelation.
21
Q

How does the Catholic Church say we should interpret religious experience?

A
  • Secondary to the revelation of Jesus
  • Only able to provide insight on what has already been revealed
22
Q

What does Swinburne say about religious experience?

A
  • It is reasonable to believe that the world is probably as we believe it to be
  • The Principle of Credulity says that unless we have a reason to question a religious experience we should accept it.
23
Q

Why does Hume say that religious experiences do not prove God’s existence?

A
  • It is unreasonable to believe a miracle has happened because they contradict the laws of nature
  • The laws of nature are unbreakable
  • There is more evidence for the laws of nature than a miracle
  • Therefore it is more reasonable to say that a miracle has not occurred.
24
Q

What other arguments are there against religious experiences proving God exists?

A
  • There is a lack of evidence
  • The person could be under the influence of Drugs
  • Hallucinations could be mistaken for visions
  • Freud says they are wish fulfilment. They are things that we have an inner desire to be real.
25
Q

How would a Catholic respond to people who question religious experiences as evidence of God?

A
  • God is not bound by the laws of nature
  • Faith doesn’t require prove - just because there is no evidence doesn’t mean it didn’t happen
  • Religious Experiences are not taken lightly by the Church - they agree that drugs and hallucinations may not be true religious experiences.
26
Q

What is the Design Argument?

A
  • There is evidence in the world that shows it has been designed and therefore must have been created or designed by an agent.
  • The world is too well designed to have come about by chance.
  • Therefore the world must have a designer
  • This designer is God
27
Q

What is Teleology?

A

The study of a thing’s purpose or design.

28
Q

What is Paley’s design argument?

A
  • Paley’s famous analogy of the watch was used to explain the idea that the world did not appear by chance.
  • According to Paley, if someone comes across a rock in nature, they would assume it had always been there.
  • If they found a watch on the ground, they would assume it was the product of a designer due to its complexity.
  • The world must be designed and the designer was God, says Paley.
  • Just as the watch has a watchmaker, the world must have a world maker
29
Q

What are the strengths of the design argument?

A
  • It is based on our own sense experience
  • It works with the Christian view of God - God the creator and designer of the universe
30
Q

What arguments are there against the design argument?

A
  • Hume said that the world was unique and unlike anything else so we cannot use an analogy to explain it.
  • Evil and suffering seems to suggest that the world wasn’t created as why would an all-loving God create a world with evil?
  • Dawkins says that there is no order in the world, just an appearance of order.
  • Darwin’s theory of evolution - There is no design to this it is random
31
Q

How would Catholics respond to the criticisms of the design argument?

A
  • Just because something is unique doesn’t mean that evidence can’t be applied to it.
  • Humans can learn goodness from experiencing evil - it has a purpose
  • Science suggests that there is order in the world, not just an appearance of order
  • Evolution has been directed by God
32
Q

What is the Cosmological Argument?

A
  • The universe, and everything in it, must have a cause.
  • It is possible to trace everything back to the First Cause, which is God.
  • God has to exist as God was not created and has always existed.
  • God is the only thing on earth that is necessary - he is the uncaused causer or the unmoved mover.
33
Q

Who wrote the first design argument and the cosmological arguments?

A

St Thomas Aquinas

34
Q

What are the strengths of the cosmological argument?

A
  • It is difficult to deny that there is cause and effect in the world - it can be seen.
  • It fits with our experience of the universe, there cannot be an infinite chain of cause and effect
  • It fits with science - the universe has a beginning and an end
35
Q

What does the cosmological argument say about God’s nature?

A
  • God is all powerful (omnipotent)
  • He has the ability to create the world from nothing (ex nihilo)
36
Q

What are the arguments against the cosmological argument?

A
  • Russell said that an explanation of everything that exists is impossible and humans should just accept the universe is here.
  • Russell also says that what is true for parts is not necessarily true for the whole - just because parts of the world are caused, doesn’t mean the world is.
  • Hume said things can come into existence without cause.
  • The first cause could be the Big Bang theory.
37
Q

What is moral evil?

A

Evil that is result of human actions.

E.G Murder.

38
Q

What is natural evil?

A

Evil that is naturally occuring in the world and cause suffering.

E.G Earthquakes and Diseases.

39
Q

What is the problem of evil?

A
  • If God is all-loving, all-powerful and created a good world, why does evil and suffering occur?
  • Does God exist or is he not who we think he is?
40
Q

How would Catholics respond to the problem of evil?

A
  1. Free Will
  2. Original Sin
41
Q

How does free will help Catholics respond to the problem of evil?

A
  1. Free-will is a gift from God
  2. Humans can choose between good and evil.
  3. When we choose evil, it causes suffering.
  4. Humans are to blame as they abuse their free will.

Problem with this - it doesn’t give a reason for natural evil.

42
Q

What is the Inconsistent Triad?

A
  • Evil exists so God cannot be omnipotent or omnibenevolent.
  • Therefore God does not exist or is not who we think he is.
43
Q

Who came up with the idea of the Inconsistent Triad?

A

David Hume and Mackie

44
Q

What arguments would Christians usually put forward for the reason evil exists in the world?

A
  1. Evil is necessary as an opposite of good
  2. Evil helps us to be better people
  3. Evil is a consequence of free will
45
Q

Why would Mackie reject the Christian idea that evil is necessary as an opposite of good?

A

Mackie says that even if it was the case that we need some evil to appreciate the good, why do we need so much evil? There is far more evil than needed in the world.

46
Q

Why would Mackie reject the Christian idea that evil helps us to become better people?

A
  1. Why didn’t God make us perfect in the first place? Why make us so that we had to become better people?
  2. Sometimes going through suffering makes people worse people. They could become bitter for sample.
47
Q

Why would Mackie reject the Christian idea that evil is a consequence of free will?

A
  1. Why didn’t God create humans that always did good instead of choosing evil?
  2. free will is too high a price for humans to have free will and God would have known this.
48
Q

What do Catholics believe about the goodness of God?

A
  1. God is good and Gods creation is good.
  2. We can see Gods goodness in the created world, in the beauty of a flower or in the forgiveness or compassion of another person.
  3. We know God is good as we see it reflected in his creation.
49
Q

What do Catholics learn from the story of Job?

A
  1. Humans are not capable of understanding the reasons why God chooses to do or not do certain things.
  2. Catholics must trust that God understand the reasons for suffering.
  3. Gods plan.
50
Q

What do Catholics believe about the positive effect suffering can have?

A
  1. Suffering is a way to bring them closer. To Jesus and an understanding of salvation.
  2. Suffering is a mystery that God uses to bring about good.
  3. Catholics share their suffering with God through prayer.
51
Q

What does Augustine say about evil and suffering?

A
  1. Evil in the world helps us appreciate the good in the world.
  2. Evil is just an absence of good. A privation. - God does not cause or permit evil as evil isn’t even a thing.
  3. God created everything good - original sin is to blame for evil in the world.
52
Q

What do Hick and St Iranaeus think about why evil exists in the world?

A
  1. Humans were made in the image of God, but are not perfect.
  2. They need to grow to become spiritually perfect. They do this through suffering- as a way to develop.
  3. Through free will we can make the right choices.
  4. This is called soul making and explains why God allows natural evil, it helps people grow and become better people.
53
Q

What are the practical responses to evil and suffering?

A
  1. Prayer - Catholics share their suffering with God in prayer
  2. Charity - Catholics help those in need as the Parable of the Sheep and Goats makes it clear that those who help others will be rewarded in heaven.
54
Q

What is marriage to Catholics?

A

For Catholics, marriage is a unitive and procreative relationship and reflects Jesus’ relationship with his disciples.

55
Q

Why do Catholics get married?

A
  • Catholic teaching is that marriage can only take place between a man and a woman.
  • Marriage is unitive:
  • ‘A man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh.’
56
Q

What is the purpose of commitment in marriage?

A

The couple needs to be free to make the commitment and mature enough to understand what it means.

When Catholics marry, they are asked:

  1. If they are making the commitment freely.
  2. If they will ‘accept children lovingly from God’.
  3. It is a covenant of love between two people and a promise to have children.
57
Q

What vows do Catholics make during marriage?

A

A couple commits themselves to one another through marriage vows.

  1. For better for worse.
  2. For richer and poorer.
  3. In sickness and in health.
  4. Until death do us part.

They need to accept that the marriage vows involve a lifelong commitment and that the marriage should be open to having children.

58
Q

What do Catholics think about cheating?

A
  • It is against the Ten Commandments
  • ‘You shall not commit adultery’
59
Q

What do Catholics teach about same sex marriage?

A

Marriage should be between a man and a woman - there is no place for homosexual marriages in Catholicism.

60
Q

What does the Church of England teach about same sex marriage?

A

The Church of England criticised the decision to legalise same-sex marriage in the UK.

61
Q

What do Catholics teach about cohabitation? (Living together before marriage)?

A
  • Sex should only be within the marriage because the aim of sex should be to bear children.
  • Children should not be raised outside of the marital home.
62
Q

What does it say in Genesis about having children and marriage?

A
  • God tell man and woman to “be fruitful and multiply”
  • It says that men and women are to be husband and wife and will become ‘one flesh’.
63
Q

What is a premarital sex?

A
  • When a couple has sex before marriage.
  • The Catholic Church says that sex is a gift from God which should unify them and create children - therefore premarital sex is wrong.
64
Q

What is cohabitation?

A
  • When a couple lives together before marriage.
  • Usually they are also in a sexual relationship
65
Q

What is a same-sex relationship?

A
  • Sex between two men or two women
  • The Catholic Church teaches that being gay is not a sin, but being in a gay relationship is.
  • Homosexuals should remain celibate (not have sex)
66
Q

What is extramarital sex?

A
  • This is adultery or having an affair.
  • This breaks the wedding vows and is grounds for divorce in the eyes of the law.
  • A marriage in front of God cannot be dissolved - a divorced Catholic couple would still be married in the eyes of God.
67
Q

What are the 3 purposes of sexual relations according to the Catholic Church?

A
  1. Unitive
  2. Marital
  3. Procreative
68
Q

What did people expect from marriage and family life in the 1960s?

A
  1. Young people would not have sex until marriage
  2. Most people would be marriage in church by 25 Marriages would last a lifetime
  3. Most families would consist of a husband, wife and children (nuclear family)
  4. Homosexuals would not be seen in public because homosexual sex between adult males was a criminal offence.
69
Q

3.1 How have attitudes changed towards marriage and family life?

A
  1. Most people have sex before marriage
  2. It is now socially acceptable for couples to cohabit rather than marry and a greater % are doing so.
  3. Only a minority of marriages happen in a church (60% in 1970, 34% in 2006)
  4. Divorce is accepted as a normal part of life, there has been a great increase in the number of divorces.
  5. The extended family is becoming more popular.
  6. Single-parent families have increased considerably as more couples divorce.
  7. More children being brought up by cohabiting parents (11% in 2006)
70
Q

Why have attitudes have changed? Cohabitation and marriage

A
  1. Contraception made it safer to have sex without becoming pregnant.
  2. Christianity lost its influence.
  3. There was increased media publicity of celebrities which made cohabitation appear respectable.
  4. The presentation on television and in films of sexual relationships outside marriage as the norm.
71
Q

Why have attitudes have changed? Divorce

A
  1. In 1969 new laws made divorce cheaper and easier.
  2. Expectations of what marriages should be like have changed.
  3. Before the equal rights legislation, married women were often dependent on their husbands for financial support.
  4. There has also been a change in how long people are likely to be married.
72
Q

Why have attitudes have changed? Family Life

A
  1. The increase in the number of cohabiting couples means there are now many more families where the parents are not married.
  2. The increase in divorce has led to an increase in remarriage. This means there are many more reconstituted families.
  3. The extended family is becoming more popular.
  4. The increase in the number of divorces has led to an increase in the number of single-parent families.
73
Q

Why have attitudes have changed? Homosexuality

A
  1. The various changes in the laws on homosexuality..
  2. Medical research has shown that homosexuality is most probably genetic.
  3. Society began to realise that at least 5% of the population is homosexual, so people began to accept equal status .
  4. The increased openness of gay celebrities has led to a greater acceptance of all gay people.
74
Q

What do non-religious groups believe about family life?

A
  • Humans should behave morally but they should live freely
  • A sexual relationship between two consenting adults is acceptable, married or not.
  • Most humanists would say that this should be thought through, contraception should be used if needed and couples should be faithful.
75
Q

What is Civil Partnership?

A

A legal ceremony giving a homosexual couple the same legal rights as a husband and wife.

76
Q

What is Cohabitation?

A

Living together without being married.

77
Q

What is Homosexuality?

A

Sexual attraction to the same sex.

78
Q

What is Nuclear family?

A

Mother, father and children living as a unit.

79
Q

What is a Re-constituted family?

A

Where two sets of children (stepbrothers and stepsisters) become one family when their divorced parents marry each other.

80
Q

What is Re-marriage?

A

Marrying again after being divorced from a previous marriage.

81
Q

What is Pre-marital sex?

A

Sex before marriage.

82
Q

What is Adultery?

A

A sexual act between a married person and someone other than their marriage partner.

83
Q

What is Procreation?

A

Making a new life.

84
Q

How does the Church support families?

A
  • The Church considers itself as an important body for supporting families.
  • Family worship, the sacraments (e.g. baptism and marriage) and classes are some of the duties that the Church consider important to its parish.
  • The Family Group Movement was founded in order to support parishes, so that they may support families.
85
Q

What does St Paul say about family?

A
  • St Paul’s describes the importance of mutual love and respect between a married couple.
  • St Paul also writes that the husband is the head of the family.
  • Most Christians would argue that men and women are equal.
86
Q

What are the different methods of contraception?

A

Natural Methods and Artificial Methods

87
Q

Can you give an example of Natural Methods of Contraception?

A

Natural Family Planning (Planning sex around when the female is most fertile)

88
Q

Can you give an example of Artificial Methods of Contraception?

A

Condoms, the pill, the injection, the coil, the morning after pill and the implant are some examples.

89
Q

Why would people want to use contraception?

A
  • The health of the mother
  • To provide more food for the family unit
  • To provide a better standard of living for the family unit.
  • So as not to have children.
  • 90% of people in the UK of childbearing age use some form of contraception.
90
Q

What is the Catholic attitude towards using contraception?

A
  • The Catholic Church has always taught responsible parenthood.
  • The Church teaches that sexual intercourse is a gift from God as a source of joy and pleasure to married couples as well as a means of creating a family.
  • Catholics believe that you can plan your family using natural contraception, like the rhythm method
91
Q

Why do Catholics have that attitude towards using contraception?

A
  1. Pope Pius XI condemned all forms of contraception
  2. In 1951, Pope Pius XII said that Catholics could use natural methods of contraception as these are natural and so part of God’s creation.
  3. The Catholic Church regards contraception as a major cause of sexual promiscuity, broken families, the rise in divorce rate and sexually transmitted diseases,
  4. Artificial methods of birth control i.e. condoms or the Pill separate the unitive and creative aspects of sex, which is not what God intended.
92
Q

What is the non-Catholic Christian attitude towards using contraception?

A
  • Almost all non-Catholic Christians believe that all forms of contraception are permissible as long as they are used to restrict the size of the family
  • Not simply to stop having children altogether.
93
Q

Why do non-Catholic Christians have that attitude towards using contraception?

A
  1. Christianity is about love and justice and contraception improves women’s health and raises the standard of living of children as families are smaller.
  2. God created sex for enjoyment and to cement the bonds of marriage. Within marriage, contraception allows the role of sex to be separated from making children and this is not against God’s will.
  3. They believe that it is better to combat AIDS/HIV by using condoms than by expecting everyone to follow Christian rules about sex and marriage.
94
Q

What are the main reasons for divorce?

A
  • Adultery
  • The couple stop loving each other or move apart.
  • Money issues
95
Q

What does the Catholic Church teach about divorce?

A
  • The Catholic Church teaches that marriage is a lifelong commitment.
  • Divorce in the eyes of the church is therefore not possible.
  • A civil divorce may be obtained but this will not be recognised by the church.
  • Divorce is seen as contrary to and an offence against the natural law as it breaks the contract before God.
  • It also breaks the Catholic Vows of Marriage.
96
Q

What does the Catholic Church teach about remarriage?

A

Remarriage is also not allowed under the definition of both marriage and adultery.

97
Q

What does the Catholic Church teach about annulment?

A
  • In some circumstances, marriages can be acceptably annulled.
  • An annulment declares the marriage invalid due to one or both person(s) not entering the marriage with either a full commitment or full freedom.
98
Q

What do other Christian religions think about divorce?

A
  • Most other Christian denominations and non-religious groups allow divorce, as a last resort.
  • This is because of agape (unconditional love).
  • This says that divorce is fine if the divorce can be seen as the most loving thing to do.
99
Q

What does the Catholic Church teach about equality?

A
  • The Catholic Church teaches that God made both men and women equal and in the image of God.
  • In Galatians, St Paul confirms both men and women are equal- ‘all are one in Christ Jesus’
  • The Catechism of the Catholic Church teaches that the dignity (being worthy of respect) comes from God
  • Catholic teaching is against gender prejudice and discrimination.
100
Q

How are men and women equal but different for Catholics?

A
  • Catholics believe women have a special role in the raising of children.
  • Catholic women are often encouraged to look to Mary, Jesus’ mother, as their role model.
  • More recently, Catholic teaching has recognised the changing roles of men and women.
101
Q

Why does the Catholic Church not allow women to be priests?

A
  • They say that the priest often stands in the place of Jesus and must therefore be a man.
  • But Pope Francis has taught that it is time to create chances for women to play a more important role in the Church.
102
Q

What do other Christian religions teach about women?

A
  • Some Christian denominations have female ministers.
  • They agree that women should be helped as they attempt to juggle home and working life
  • Men should also be supported to do the same.
103
Q

What is the Catholic attitude towards the role of women in the Church?

A
  1. The Catholic Church teaches that men and women should have equal roles in life and society.
  2. Women can study and teach in theological colleges.
  3. Women can also be ministers of Holy Communion, visit the sick, and take funerals in certain circumstances and so on.
  4. Over half of the lectors and extraordinary ministers in the British Catholic Church are women.
  5. However, only the men can be ordained priests.
  6. This does not affect the equal status of women. It is because the special function of the priest representing Jesus at the Mass.
104
Q

Why do Catholics have this attitude towards the role of women in the Church?

A
  1. The creation story in Genesis 1 says that God created male and female at the same time and in his image and therefore of equal status.
  2. It is the teaching of the Catholic Catechism that men and women are equal and should have equal rights in life and society.
  3. Only men can be priests because the apostles were all men and priests and bishops are successors of the apostles.
  4. Only men can be priests because Jesus was a man and the priest represents Jesus in the Mass.
105
Q

What is the traditional protestant attitude towards the role of women in the Church?

A
  1. Many traditional Protestants teach that men and women have separate and different roles and so cannot have equal rights in religion.
  2. It is the role of women to bring up children and run a Christian home.
  3. Women should not speak in church and must submit to their husbands.
  4. It is the role of men to provide for the family and to lead the family in religion.
  5. Men must love their wives as themselves, but only men can be Church leaders and teachers.
106
Q

Why do traditional protestants have this attitude towards the role of women in the Church?

A
  1. In the Bible, St Paul teaches that women should not teach or speak in church.
  2. St Paul also uses the story of Adam and Eve in Genesis to show that men have been given more rights by God because Adam was created first and it was the woman who was led astray by Satan and then led man astray.
  3. Although Jesus had women followers, he chose only men as his twelve apostles.
  4. It has always been the tradition of the Church that only men should be leaders.
107
Q

What is the modern protestant attitude towards the role of women in the Church?

A
  1. Many Protestant churches now accept that men and women should have equal rights.
  2. They have women ministers and priests (Church of England)
108
Q

Why do modern protestant have this attitude towards the role of women in the Church?

A
  1. The creation story in Genesis 1 says that God created male and female at the same time in his image and therefore of equal status.
  2. In some of his letters, Paul teaches that men and women are equal in Christ.
  3. There is evidence from the Gospels that Jesus treated women as his equals, for example:
    • He had women disciples who stayed with him at the cross unlike the male disciples who ran away.
    • After his resurrection, Jesus appeared first to his women disciples.
    • There is some evidence that there were women priests in the early Church.