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Flashcards in Oral manifestations and management of patients with immunodeficiency Deck (40)
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What are the side effects from steroids? i.e from corticosteroid therapy

• Predisposition to diabetes mellitus
• Cushingoid appearance
• Increased risk of fungal infections
• Hypertension
• Osteoporosis
• Adrenal suppression
• Gastric ulceration


What are the orodental problems associated with steroids?

• Hypotensive crisis
• Underlying disease process
• Oportunistic infections / Candidal infection
• Delayed healing
• Osteoporosis
• Avoid aspirin and NSAID’s

• Following a case report in 1953 it became common practice that patients currently or recently taking exogenous
steroids require large doses of steroids when subjected to surgery
• This practice has now been challenged


What is a steroid/adrenal crisis?

Crisis occurs when the physiological demand for these hormones exceeds the ability of adrenal glands to produce them, ie in patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency when subject to an intercurrent illness or stress. 


What is the hypothalamic, pituitary, adrenal (HPA) axis?

The hypothalamic, pituitary, adrenal (HPA) axis is our central stress response system. The HPA axis is an eloquent and every-dynamic intertwining of the central nervous system and endocrine system.

It can be suppressed by oral corticosteroids and lead to an adrenal crisis in times of stress. 


What are the BDH recommendations to prevent an adrenal crisis?

Patients currently taking steroids or who have had steroids in the last three months:
• Under 10mgs Prednisolone daily no cover
• Greater than 10mgs Prednisolone daily:
-For elective treatment, liase with medical practitioner to consider increasing steroid dose preoperatively
• If immediate treatment required 100mg hydrocortisone hemisuccinate iv
prior to procedure


What is Addison's disease?

Primary adrenal insufficiency
• 78,000 patients in the UK
• Require Steroid Cover for invasive/stressful procedures


What should you do for a dental patient that is going to undergo chemotherapy?

• Screening to eliminate any likely causes of potential dental sepsis prior to commencement of treatment
• Intervention needs to be timed in a window of count recovery
• High dose regime requires extra vigilance, slightest opportunistic infection can prove fatal 

Best to treat:
• Just before chemotherapy given
• Just after within 2-3 days)
Always check platelets and neutrophils for procedures likely to cause a bacteraemia


What should you do if the patient is neutropenic at the time of treatment or if the treatment is likely to induce a bacteraemia?

Prophylactic antibiotic cover is recommended


Prior to cancer therapy it is recommended that:

Oro/dental care:
– Comprehensive oral assessment undertaken
– Detailed oral hygiene instruction
supplementation with chlorhexidine M/W gel
– Carious teeth stabilised with appropriate
– Smooth any sharp teeth restorations
– Teeth with doubtful prognosis removed (any teeth likely to be pulpally involved or with chronic apical pathology, advanced periodontal disease)

Special consideration in children: The dentition is still developing and cytotoxic
agents and RTX may affect the developing


What is this? 



What is this?

Neutropenic ulceration


What are some examples of opportunistic infections?


-Systemic Aspergillosis


-Recurrent herpes



What is this?

Systemic Aspergillosis


What is this?

Herpes Zoster (unilateral)


What is this?

Recurrent herpes


What is this?

Atypical herpes simplex aciclovir resistant 


What are some different types of anti-rejection drugs?

• Cyclosporin (known to cause gingival hyperplasia but surgical removal provides resolution once cyclosporin stopped)
• Azathioprin
• Tacrolimus
• Prednisilone


What is this?

Gingival hyperplasia. Can only be removed by surgery. 


What are the guidelines for the different types of transplants?

-Patients who have had a kidney transplant may also be medicated to reduce their hypertension

-Heart transplant patients will usually have a pacemaker fitted and may be further medicated to compensate for the previous damage to the cardiovascular system

-The guidelines for treatment in heart transplant patients suggest antibiotic prophylaxis is desirable for any invasive procedure

-In Lung transplant patients aerosols
should be avoided (air rotor/ultrasonics)

-In respect of all solid organ transplant patients it must be remembered that these patients are immunocompromised (must avoid bacteraemia!)


What are stem cell and bone marrow transplants used for?

Bone marrow: Used for treatment of haemopoeitic malignancy and some genetic disorders


Stem cell: Used for high dose chemotherapy


What can Bone Marrow Transplant lead to?

Graft versus Host disease which may be
severe and cause persistent oral complications (mucosal lesions). Due to GVHD the immunosuppression may be increased to combat this effect causing more likelihood of opportunistic oral infections 


What are the HIV stats in the UK?

HIV is the fastest growing serious health condition
in the UK.
There were estimated to be 100,000 people living with HIV in 2012
22% undiagnosed and so unaware of their infection.
6,390 people were newly diagnosed with HIV in 2012, 490 died



What is HIV?

HIV causes a progressive disease in which
regulation and function of the immune
system are impaired. There's a decrease in CD4 helper cells.

• The CD4 count is used as a marker of
disease progression
• In normal health >600
• Initial immune suppression 40

Often diagnosed with pneumonia in late stages. 


What is this an image of?

A man with AIDS.


What's the risk group for AIDS?

Any sexually active male or female. 


What's the management of HIV?

– Nucleoside analogues
– Protease inhibitors

Antiretroviral drug therapy has proved very effective, HIV cannot be cured but it can be treated and you can still live a long life, often men with HIV will live longer than men without as they are receiving ongoing medical attention. 

• An HIV+ve patient on treatment with a fully suppressed viral load is of
minimal risk to health care professionals.
• Good universal cross infection practice will eliminate the majority of the
risk factors.


What are the extra oro-facial manifestations of HIV?

• Cervical lymph node enlargement
• Salivary gland enlargement
• Skin disorders:
-Molluscum contagiosum


What is this?

Seborrhoeic Dermatitis



What are the intra-oral manifestations of HIV?

•Hairy leukoplakia
•Kaposi sarcoma
•Apthous type and viral ulcers
• Periodontal disease (ANUG)
• Papillomavirus infections
•Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma