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Flashcards in org 2 test 2 rxns Deck (52)
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1

grignard reagents with carbonyl

-mgbr
carbonyl-->alcohol
adds whatever is attached to mgbr

2

organolithium with carbonyl

-culi
carbonyl-->alcohol
adds whatever is attached to culi

3

carbonyl with anion of terminal alkyne

carbonyl-->alcohol
adds alkyne

4

carbonyl with cyanohydrin

HCN
carbonyl-->alcohol
adds c---n

5

wittig reaction

Ph3P-CH2
carbonyl to alkene (R=CH2)

6

horner-emmons-wadsworth modification of wittig reaction

takes off phosphate group
adds internal alkene (where carbonyl group was)

7

hydration of carbonyl

h2o
carbonyl-->alcohol

8

hemiacetal formation

addition of alcohol
catalyzed by acid or base

9

acetal formation

addition of alcohol
catalyzed by acid or base
2 equivalents

10

formation of imines

addition of ammonia and its derivatives
carbonyl--> R=NR'

11

formation of enamines

addition of secondary amines
carbonyl leaves and double bond formed 1 bond away
bond between N and where carbonyl was

12

hydrazine and its derivatives

H2N=NH2
carbonyl--> R=N

13

aldehyde to carboxylic acid

H2CrO4
KMnO4
Ag2O

14

metal hydride reduction of carbonyls

carbonyl-->alcohol
NaBH4 and H2O

15

catalytic reduction of carbonyls

carbonyl--> alcohol
H2 and metal

16

reductive amination

CH3NH2 and reducing agent
carbonyl--> R-NHCH3

17

clemmensen reduction

ZnHg and HCl
removes carbonyl

18

wolff-kishner reduction

H2NNH2
removes carbonyl
N2 and H2O byproduct

19

halogenation at alpha carbon of carbonyl

adds halogen to carbon alpha to carbonyl

20

carbonation of grignard reagent

CO2 and HCl/H2O
MgBr --> COOH
formation of carboxylic acid

21

lithium aluminum hydride

LiAlH4
removes carbonyl from carboxylic acid
leaves alcohol

22

fischer esterification

carboxylic acid + alcohol in presence of acid catalyst
gives ester

23

carboxylic acid with diazomethane

CH2N2
carboxylic acid to methyl ester

24

carboxylic acid to acid halide

SOCl2 or PBr3
replaces OH with halide

25

decarboxylation

heat
removes COOH group

26

hydrolysis of an acid chloride

H2O
removes Cl and adds OH forming carboxylic acid

27

hydrolysis of an acid anhydride

anhydride= RCOOCOR
H2O
breaks apart to form 2 carboxylic acids

28

hydrolysis of an ester

acid or base
forms carboxylate ion and alcohol in base
forms carboxylic acid and alcohol in acid

29

hydrolysis of an amide

acid or base
forms ammonium ion and carboxylic acid in acid
forms amine and carboxylate ion in base

30

hydrolysis of a nitrile

acid or base
forms carboxylic acid and amide-->ammonium ion in acid
forms carboxylate ion and amide--> ammonium ion in base