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Flashcards in Organ Systems Deck (36):

Which side of the heart has a larger muscle

Left side because it needs the muscle to pump blood around the entire body.


Where does the left side of the heart receive its blood from

It receives blood from the pulmonary vein which comes from the lungs this blood is oxygenated


Where does the right side of the heart receive blood from and where does the blood go

It receives blood from the vena cava this blood is deoxygenated it sends blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery


Describe the main sections of the heart

The atrium is where the blood is received the passes through a set of valves which prevent back flow into the ventricle. Here the blood is pumped through another set of valves and out into the body usually through an artery


What is a group of cells called

A tissue


The name for a group of tissues is

A organ


Multiple organ create

An organ system


What are three ways you can measure growth

Size, height width and length
Wet mass, the mass of an object with water
Dry mass, usually measured when the organism is dead


What does growth involve

Cell differentiation or specialisation,
Cell division first rapidly in mammals to create an adult body then it is used for repair. This process is mitosis
Cell elongation used in plants to grow.


How can fossils form

They can form when a soft material surrounds them and forms a cast
They can be preserved when no decay happens this usually occurs in extreme climates where micro organisms cannot survive.


What do fossils found in rock layers tell us

What the fossil looked liked.
When the fossil existed he further back into the Rock the fossil generally the older the fossil
How they evolved by comparing different fossils from different time periods to rate change.


What are problems with fossils

Very few organisms turn into fossils they tend to decay
Soft tissue decays completely.
Not all fossils are found


What is a main part of evidence for evolution

The pentadactyl limb. This is a limb with five digits. It is found in many animals such as whales humans and bays. The similarity in bone structure suggests that we both formed from a common ancestor


What shape are blood cells

Bi concave disc shape


What adaptations to red blood cells have and why

They have no nucleus so that they can carry more blood


Why do red blood cells have their shape

To create a large surface area this allows for more absorption of oxygen in a smaller time frame


What do white blood cells do

They defend against infection,


Name the components of blood

Plasma is a yellow liquid in the blood it carries dissolved substances such as carbon dioxide and food substances. Red blood cells contain haemoglobin this combines with oxygen to make oxyhemoglobin this gives cells oxygen for aerobic respiration
White blood cells have a nucleus. Some wbc release antibodies which bind with antigens to destroy micro organisms others surround the infection to kill it. Platelets are fragments of cells which cause blood clots or scabs to seal wounds preventing the ingress of infection


What differences do arteries and veins have

Arteries have a thick wall because the pressure of blood running through them is large. Veins take blood back to the heart they are not high pressure so have a thin wall and a large lumen ( the bit in the middle)


What is different about a capillary

It is very small and only has a one cell thick wall . The wall is permeable so diffusion of oxygen can take place. They exchange important nutrients with cells.


What is special about the digestive system walls

They are the size as that starch proteins and fats cannot pass brought but sugars amino acids glycerol and fatty acids can


What do enzymes do in the digestive system

They catalyse the reaction breaking down large molecules such as carbohydrates proteases and lipase into smaller components


What does protease break down into

Proteins into amino acids


What does lipase break down into

Fat into fatty acidse and glycerol


What do carbohydrases brake down into

Starch into sugars


What happens in the digestive system in the mouth

Good is moistened with saliva produced in the salivary glands. Amylase is priced which breaks down starch amylase is in the saliva. Food is chewed to allow it to be sealed it creates a bolus


What does the oesophagus do

The muscles contract and move the ball along know as peristalsis


What does the liver produce for digestion

It produces bile which neutralises stomach acids and emulsifiers fats


What happens in the stomach

It pummels food with muscular walls
Hydrochloric acid kills bacteria and provides the right ph for protease
Enzymes such as pepsin which is a protease enzyme break down proteins into amino acids.


What does the gall bladder contain

Bile which releases into the small intestine


What does the pancreas produce a

Protease amylase and lipase enzymes into the small intestine


What is the large intestine and small intestine for

The small intestine absorbs food and completes digestion the large intestine absorbs excess water from the food


What can you use to test for sugar an starch

Idodine to test for starch
Benedicts solution to test for sugars


What is peristalsis

Waves of circular muscle contractions move the food along the gut and waves of longitudinal contractions help to keep the food in a ball.


Why is bile important

It ensures that the pH in the stomach is optimum by neutralising excess acids as it is alkaline.
It emulsifies fats, this means it breaking them into tiny droplets giving them a larger surface area for the enzyme lipase to work on.


Why are villi important

There are millions of villi giving a large surface area allowing for the quick absorption of digested food.
They have a single layer of surface cells allowing the food to diffuse quickly across a small distance
They have a large network of capillaries meaning absorption is faster as the molecules can diffuse straight across into the blood and be carried on