Organelles Flashcards Preview

Exam 1 Information > Organelles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organelles Deck (48):
1

Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Components

Porins

2

Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Components

-Electron transport chain
-Cytochrome C
-Mitochondrial ATP Synthase (F1 subunits, lollipops)

3

Matrix Components

-Tricarboxylic Acids (Kreb's) Cycle enzymes
-Mitochondrial (circular) DNA
-Mitochondrial Ribosomes
-Matrix Granules (Ca++)

4

RER Function

Synthesis of Proteins destined for
-Secretion
-Isolation from cytosol
-Insertion into membranes

Core Glycosylation

5

Cell types rich in ER

Protein Secreting Cells
-Plasma cells
-Hepatocytes
-Pancreatic Acinar Cells
-Fibroblasts
-Chrondroblasts
-Osteoblasts

Protein-Storing Cells
-Macrophages
-Osteoclasts

6

SER Function

1. Synthesis of Steroids
2. Lipid Metabolism
3. Synthesis of Glycogen
4. Drug Detoxification
5. Ca++ Sequestration and Release

7

Cell types rich in SER

1. Steroid Secreting Cells
a. Adrenal Cortical Cells
b. Leydigs Cells (Testis)
c. Granulosa Cells (Ovary)

2. Active Metabolic Cells
a. Hepatocytes
b. Adipocytes

3. Muscle Cells
a. Skeletal Muscle
b. Cardiac Muscle

8

Golgi function

Packaging
-of sequestered proteins and other secretory products

Glycosylation
-of proteins and other cell products

Sulfation
-of Proteins and other cell prodcuts

Vesicle formation
-for transport and secretion

Targeting
-of vesicles for intracellular transport

9

Cell Types Rich in Golgi Complex

Protein Secreting Cells
-Plasma cells
-Hepatocytes
-Pancreatic Acinar Cells

Matrix-Secreting Cells
-Fibroblasts
-Chrondroblasts
-Osteoblasts

Protein-Storing Cells
-Macrophages
-Osteoclasts

10

Lysosomal Enzyme

Acid phosphatases

11

Cells Rich in Lysosomes

Phagocytic Cells
-Macrophages
-Neutrophils
-Osteoclasts
-Kupffer Cells

Active MetabolicCells
-Hepatocytes

12

Peroxisomes are also known as:

mirobodies

13

Function of Peroxisomes

-Lipid metabolism (Convert fats to carbohydrates)
-LH202 Metabolism (Detoxification of potentially harmful molecules which form in the cells)

14

Peroxisomal enzymes

H2O2 Synthesis
-Urate oxidase
-Hydroxyacid oxidase
-D-Amino Acid oxidase

H202 Degredation
-Catalase

15

Cell Types Rich in Peroxisomes

1. Steroid Secreting Cells
a. Adrenal Cortical Cells
b. Leydigs Cells (Testis)
c. Granulosa Cells (Ovary)

2. Active Lipid Metabolic Cells
a. Hepatocytes
b. Adipocytes

16

What is cholesterol used for?

Used to help move different cells closer or further from each other.

17

Membrane lipids

Phospholipids, glycolipids, cholesterol

18

Carbohydrate on the cellular membrane

covalently linked to proteins (glycoproteins) or lipids (glycolipids) are also a part of cell membranes, and function as adhesion and address loci for cells.

19

Nonpolar (Organic) molecules

Steroids
Glycerol
Small Alchohols
Fat-Soluble Vitamins

20

Steps of Active Transport

A. Transported molecule binds to site on
transporter (transmembrane integral
protein)
B. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) generated
by ATPase binds to, and activates,
transporter protein
C. Conformational change of
transporter protein, releasing
transported molecule and Pi
C. Conformational change of
transporter protein, releasing
transported molecule and Pi

21

Membrane trafficking: What does SNARE stand for? Do SNAREs use energy?

SNARE stands for Soluble NSF Attachment Protein REceptor

Uses GTP

22

Smooth ER vs Rough ER

Rough ER
-Cell membranes
-Parallel cisternae
-Ribosomes

Smooth ER
-Cell membranes
-Tubulovesicular cisternae
-No ribosomes

23

Lipid Droplet Function

Storage Depot
-Chemical energy
-raw materials for lipid synthesis
-Vitamins

Neutral Lipids
-Fatty Acids
-Fat-Soluble Vitamins (ADEK)

24

Cells Rich in Lipid Droplets

1. Steroid-Secreting Cells
a. Adrenal Cortical Cells
b. Leydig Cells (Testis)
c. Granulosa Cells (Ovary)
2. Active Lipid Metabolic Cells
a. Hepatocytes (Liver)
b. Mammary Secretory Cells
3. Lipid-Storing Cells
a. Adipocytes
b. Ito Cells (Liver)
c. Sebaceous Gland Secretory Cells

25

Glycogen Granule function

Storage Depot
-chemical energy
-raw materials for polysaccharide synthesis

26

Cells rich in Glycogen granules

Hepatocytes
Muscle Cells
Neutrophils

27

Melanin Pigment Function

Absorb UV light
Absorb Free Radicals
Protect DNA of Dividing Cells
Absorb Excess Light
-Reduce Visual Noise

28

Cell Types Rich in Glycogen Granules

1. Melanocytes (Skin)
2. Pigment Epithelium (Retina)
3. Substantia Nigra Neurons (Brain)

29

Microfilaments

essential for movement

30

Intermediate filaments

enables cell to withstand mechanical stress; tensile strenght

31

Microtubules

Creates tracks within the cell for movement of structures to the periphery; anchor organelles to one another; form permanent structure; move chromosomes

32

Miicrofilament

-F-actin consists of double-helical, linear array of globular (G) actin monomers.

33

Microfilaments-Profilin

turnover and restructuring of actin

34

Microfilaments: Formins

Assist in concentration of g-actin in the polymerizatoin

35

Microfilaments: Gelsolin

severing and/or capping of F-actin

36

Microfilaments: Phalloidin

Prevents depolarization. Used to identify actin

37

Microfilaments: Integrin

signaling and adhesive role

38

Microvilli

Contains parallel microfilaments at their core

Core microfilaments insert into terminal web microfilaments in the apical cytoplasm

39

Spectrin

associated with red blood cells. It is also a protein that helps connect actin and myosin , Helps stabilize the red blood cell. Helps cause contractions to decrease the size of the cell. The myosin, along with the actin, will cause contraction to decrease the cell size. When it decreases with the size, the microvilli spreads out a little bit. Helps to increase and expose surface area.

40

Microfilament Function

-Contraction
-Cell Adhesion
-Cell shape changes
-Cell motility

41

Cell Types Rich in Microfilaments

1. Muscles
-Skeletal muscle (thin filaments)
-Cardiac muscle (thin filaments)
-Smooth Muscle (microfilaments)

2. Motile Cells
-Macrophages (microfilaments)
-Neutrophils (microfilaments)

3. Mitotic Cells
-Cytotokinesis (cleavage furrow)
-Housekeeping Proteins (actin- all cells)

42

Function of intermediate filaments

-Structural scaffolding
-Maintain cell shape
-Resist cell deformation
=Reinforce cell attachment

43

Intermediate filaments: Types/Components

Cytokeratin/Epithelial cells
Vimentin/Connective tissue cells
Desmin/Muscle cells
Neurofilament Protein/ Neurons
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)/ Glial Cells (Astrocytes)

44

Colchine

Prevents microtubule assembly by binding tubulin heteroimer

45

Kinesin

Walks towards cell surface (plus end)

46

Vinblastine and Vincristing

Aggregate tubulin and prevent microtubule assembly

47

Nocodazole

Causes depolymerrization of existing microtubules

48

Taxol

Binds to microtubules and prevents depolymerization