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Flashcards in Organelles Deck (34)
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1

What is chromatin?

Genetic material made up of DNA and proteins

2

What are the 2 types of chromatin?

Heterochromatin and Euchromatin

3

What type of chromatin is used for gene expression and why?

Euchromatin as the DNA is not tightly wound so it is easy for transcription to occur

4

Why can't heterochromatin be involved in gene expression?

The DNA is tightly wrapped around proteins to form solenoids

5

What are the features of a prokaryotic cell?

No nucleus, cell wall, lacks most organelles, reactions take place in one compartment as there are no internal membranes

6

What are the functions of the plasmalemma? (5)

Allows for endocytosis and exocytosis
Intercellular adhesion
Signal transduction
Recognition
Selective permeability

7

What are the 2 faces of the Golgi called?

The Formed/Cis face (where proteins are received) and the Budding/Trans face (where proteins are secreted)

8

What is the function of the Golgi?

Modifies, sorts and packages proteins

9

What are lysosomes?

Vesicles generated by the Golgi containing hydrolytic enzymes

10

What is the cell coat of lysosomes made up of?

Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which stop the lysosome digesting everything

11

What is the cell coat of a lysosome called?

Glycocalyx

12

What are peroxisomes?

Vesicles that detoxify compounds using catalase to oxidise toxic molecules

13

Where are peroxisomes most commonly found?

Liver and Kidney

14

What are the 3 types of filaments in the cytoskeleton?

Actin filaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules

15

What are microtubules made up of?

Tubulin

16

Where are microtubules found?

Where structures move e.g. Cilia, flagella and mitotic spindle

17

Which is the biggest filament in the cytoskeleton?

Microtubules

18

What is the mitochondria the site of?

ATP/energy production

19

From whom do you inherit your mitochondria?

Mother

20

What do mitochondria contain?

They're own genome, enzymes for oxidative reaction and ribosomes

21

What is a secondary lysosome?

A lysosome that has already fused with a bacteria and contains its residue

22

What is the function of the SER?

Lipid production

23

What is the function of the RER?

The ribosome on the outside is where mRNA is translated.

24

What is the difference in shape between the RER and the SER?

The RER compromises of flat cisterna whereas the SER is tubular not flat

25

What is an amphipathic molecule?

One which has polar and non polar parts

26

What is the structure of a phospholipid molecule?

Polar, hydrophilic head and a non polar, hydrophobic fatty acid tail

27

Why is it useful for eucaryotic cells to be compartmentalised?

So that reactions don't interfere with each other meaning that many reactions can occur

28

What is the hydrophilic part of a phospholipid molecule and what is the hydrophobic part?

Hydrophilic=polar head
Hydrophobic = nonpolar, fatty acid tail

29

What is the word that means lipid production?

Steriodogenesis

30

What does constitutive secretion mean?

The proteins are constantly released