Organic Chemistry 1 - Alkanes to Alcohols Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry 1 - Alkanes to Alcohols Deck (185)
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1

What features do a homologous series share?

1) same general formula
2) similar chemical properties
((3) have successive members which differ by CH2))
4) have physical properties which show a steady gradation
5) are made by similar methods

2

What is a functional group?

A group of atoms which gives an organic compound its characteristic properties and reactions (e.g. the double bond in alkenes)

3

What is a hydrocarbon?

A compound made up of hydrogen and carbon only

4

What is a homologous series?

A family of compounds which all contain the same functional group and each member of the family contains one CH2 unit more than the previous member

5

What is a general formula?

A formula that represents all members of a homologous series

6

What is a saturated compound?

A compound in which all covalent bonds are single bonds

7

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of CH4?

Methane

8

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of C2H6?

Ethane

9

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of C3H8?

Propane

10

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of C4H10?

Butane

11

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of C5H12?

Pentane

12

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of C6H14?

Hexane

13

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of C7H16?

Heptane

14

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of C8H18?

Octane

15

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of C9H20?

Nonane

16

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of C10H22?

Decane

17

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of C11H24?

Undecane

18

What is the IUPAC nomenclature of C12H26?

Dodecane

19

What is an isomer?

Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula

20

What is the molecular formula of a methyl side chain?

-CH3

21

What is the molecular formula of an ethyl side chain?

-C2H5

22

What is the molecular formula of a propyl side chain?

-CH2CH2CH3

23

What is the molecular formula of a butyl side chain?

-CH2CH2CH2CH3

24

What is the molecular formula of a methylethyl side chain?

-CH(CH3)2

25

What is the molecular formula of a dimethylethyl side chain?

-C(CH3)3

26

What is the molecular formula of a 1-methylpropyl side chain?

-CH(CH3)CH2CH3

27

What is the molecular formula of a 2-methylpropyl side chain?

-CH2CH(CH3)2

28

What are the rules for naming branched chain alkanes?

1) Find the longest chain
2) Identify side chains
3) List side chains alphabetically
4) If more than 1 side chain of the same type is present, prefix it with di, tri etc. Ignore these when deciding alphabetical order
5) Number the side chains according to where they occur on the longest chain. Number the chain in the way that gives the lower number for the first side chain

29

Explanation for the boiling point graph of alkanes

Clear pattern - as the number of carbon atoms increases, the number of electrons increases so the strength of London forces increases, giving a higher boiling point

30

Explanation for the melting point graph of alkanes

1 curve for even numbers of carbon atoms and 1 curve for odd numbers of carbon atoms. Even numbered chains pack together more efficiently than odd numbered chains , so melting points are higher for even numbered carbon chains