Flashcards in Organic Conditions Deck (18):
What is the difference between functional psychiatric disorders and organic mental disorders?
Functional psychiatric disorders - characterised by disturbance of the functioning of the brain
Organic mental disorders - characterised by demonstrable organic brain damage or mental disorder arising in the context of demonstrable physical disease
What are the problems with the distinction between functional psychiatric disorders and organic mental disorders?
Many, if not all, functional psychiatric disorders have organic basis e.g. bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia
Many, if not all, mental disorders present with a mixture of mental and physical features e.g. depression
Physical disorders also have effect on psychological functioning
What are organic mental disorders?
Group of disorders which have a recognised organic explanation
Acquired - differentiation from learning disability
Primary brain disorder/impairment vs secondary brain disorder e.g. due to substance misuse
What cognitive impairments are seen in organic mental disorders?
Memory - anterograde +/- retrograde amnesia
What behavioural abnormalities are seen in organic mental disorders?
Slowing - psychomotor retardation
Abnormal social conduct
What mood changes are seen in organic mental disorders?
What psychotic features are seen in organic mental disorders?
Hallucinations, commonly visual
Delusions, often persecutory
What are the acute/subacute organic mental disorders?
Delirium (acute organic confusional state)
Organic mood disorder
Organic psychotic disorder
What are the chronic organic mental disorders?
Organic personality change
What is delirium?
Transient organic mental syndrome of acute or subacute onset which is characterised by global cognitive impairment
What are the presenting features of delirium?
Anterograde memory impairment
Disorientation in time, place or person
Fluctuating levels of arousal (often nocturnal exacerbations)
Disordered sleep/wake cycle
Increased/decreased psychomotor activity
Disorganised thinking indicated by rambling, irrelevant or incoherent speech
Perceptual distortions leading to misidentification, illusions and hallucinations
Changes in mood e.g. anxiety, depression and lability
What are the causes of delirium?
What is dementia?
A syndrome characterised by global cognitive impairment which is chronic in nature
The underlying brain pathology is variable and usually, but not always, aggressive
What are the types of dementia?
Dementia due to other brain disorders;
- Huntington's chorea
- Head injury
- Parkinson's disease
What are the features of amnesic syndrome?
Preserved global intellectual abilities
Retrograde amnesia (temporal gradient)
Preserved registration/working memory
Preserved procedural memory
What are the causes of amnesic syndrome?
What are the causes of hippocampal damage?
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis
Surgical removal of temporal lobes
Bilateral posterior cerebral artery occlusion
Closed head injury
Early Alzheimer's disease