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Flashcards in Organic Psych Deck (47)
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What is the function of the frontal lobe?

Executive function
Personality/social behaviour
Speech production
Suppression of primitive reflexes


What are symptoms of frontal lobe dysfunction?

Poor judgement/planning
Inappropriate behaviour/impulsivity
Expressive dysphasia
Telegraphic speech: short words + sentences
Normal comprehension
Contralateral spastic hemiparesis
Reemergence of primitive reflexes e.g. Sucking
Forced utilisation


What is the function of the temporal lobe?

Auditory, olfactory and gustatory perception
Understanding speech - Wernicke's
Emotional regulation


What are symptoms of temporal lobe dysfunction?

Auditory impairment/agnosia
Auditory, olfactory + gustatory hallucinations
Receptive dysphasia
Nonsensical fluent speech with neologisms
Amnesiac syndrome


What is the function of the parietal lobe?

Somatosensory perception
Integration of sensory perception i.e. Body awareness
Communication between Wernicke's and Broca's areas


What are the symptoms of parietal lobe dysfunction?

Contralateral sensory impairment
Contralateral sensory neglect
Receptive dysphasia


What is the function of the occipital lobe?

Visual perception and interpretation


What are the symptoms of occipital lobe dysfunction?

Contralateral visual defects
Visual agnosia
Cortical blindness


What is delirium?

An acute, transient state if global brain dysfunction
With clouding of consciousness
A sign that there is a physical problem
20% inpatients
50% post op patients
70% elderly ITU patients


What are risk factors for delerium?

Old age
Pre-existing physical / mental illness
Substance misuse


What are causes of delirium?

Trauma: head injury, burns
Hypoxia: cardio/resp
Infective: intracranial or systemic
Metabolic: liver failure, renal failure, electrolyte imbalance
Endocrine: hypoglycaemia
Nutritional: Wernicke's encephalopathy
CNS: incr ICP
Drugs and alcohol: intoxication/ withdrawal
Medication: anticholinergics + opiates


What is the clinical picture in delirium?

Sudden onset of confusion: hrs- days
Fluctuation of symptoms
Worse at night? Name
Disorientation, poor attention and short term memory
Prominent mood changes
Illusions/ hallucinations/ delusions
Thought disorder, speech disorder
Disturbed sleep
Hyper/hypo activity


How would you investigate a patient with apparent delirium?

Physical examination
Collateral history
Drug chart: recent addition?
Bloods: FBC, U&Es, G, Ca
MSU, SaO2, ECG, CXR, septic screen
Consider: LFTs, blood cultures, CT head, CSF, EEG


How is delirium managed?

Treat cause!
Manage aggravating factors e.g. Dehydration, pain, constipation, polypharmacy
Behavioural management: frequent reorientation, good lighting, address sensory deficit, avoid over/understimulation, minimise change, remove objects dangerous to patient or others, allow safe/ supervised wandering
Medication: small nocturnal dose of benzo
If sedation necessary, low dose atypical antipsychotics/ benzos


What is the prognosis with delirium?

Recovery following resolution of underlying cause
May take weeks or up to 6 months
Associated with:
Increased mortality
Longer admission
Higher readmission rates
Higher nursing home placement


What are the functions of the following areas of the brain?
Broca and Wernicke's areas
Primary motor cortex
Supplementary motor cortex
Primary somatosensory cortex
Primary visual cortex

Broca's = expression of speech
Wernicke's = comprehension of speech
Primary motor= contralateral movement
Supplementary motor= organisation of complex movement
Primary somatosensory= perception of contralateral somatosensory stimuli
Primary visual = vision


What is frontotemporal lobar degeneration?

Asymmetrical frontal / anterior lobe atrophy 40-60 yrs
Pick's disease: rounded collections hyperphosphorylated tau
FTLD-U: tau negativ ubiquinated inclusions
Frontotemporal dementia: frontal lobe syndrome, disinhibition etc
Semantic dementia: progressive loss of understanding if verbal + visual meaning
Progressive non-fluent aphasia: naming difficulties -> mutism


What is Huntingdon's disease?

AD, trinucleotide CAG repeat in Huntingdin gene Chr 4 with anticipation, death within 15 yrs
Deposits of abnormal Huntingdin protein -> atrophy of basal ganglia + thalamus and cortical neuron loss
CT/MRI: caudate nucleus atrophy
EEG: flat


What are the clinical manifestations of Huntingdon's?

Personality and behavioural changes:
Depression, irritability, euphoria
Subcortical dementia later: bradyphrenia, bradykinesia etc
Chorea: affects limbs, trunk, face, speech muscles, wide based lurching gait


HIV dementia/ encephalopathy

Affects 10%
Early apathy + withdrawal
Sub cortical dementia
Neuro features incl: ataxia, tremor, seizures, myoclonus
MRI: atrophy + diffuse white matter signal changes


What is normal pressure hydrocephalus?

Rare potentially reversible cause of dementia
Causes: meningitis, head injury, idiopathic
Impaired CSF absorption in subarachnoid space
CSF accumulates in the ventricles, production adjusts so pressure remains fairly normal
Distortion of peri ventricular white matters
Subcortical dementia, unsteady gait, urinary incontinence


What is the protein only hypothesis re,aged to prion disease?

Normal prion protein changes to an abnormal insoluble form
Which then appears to act as a template for changing further proteins


What are prion diseases?

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies


What is amnesic syndrome?

Profound anterograde memory loss: inability to lay down new memories
Patients may confabulate
Procedural memory intact
Due to damage of limbic structures dealing with explicit memory
Causes: hypoxia, encephalitis, CO poisoning
Korsakoff's syndrome is most common


What is transient global amnesia?

Acute global memory loss lasting 1-24 hrs
Causes: transient ischaemia, physical or emotional stress
Patients usually >50 yrs
Anterograde and retrograde memory affected
No loss of identity
Consciousness and cognition otherwise normal
No signs of neurological disease


What is frontal lobe syndrome?

Executive dysfunction: poor judgement, poor reasoning + problem solving, poor planning + decision making
Social behaviour and personality change: irresponsible/disinhibited/innapropriate behaviour, Impulsivity, euphoric, repetitive/compulsive behaviours
Apathy: lack of motivation + initiative, decline in self care


Post traumatic amnesia

From time of head injury until normal recovery of memory
Longer the duration the greater the risk of complications


What is retrograde amnesia?

Memory loss before the head injury, from the last clear memory until the injury
Not a good predictor of outcome


Head injury and post-concussional syndrome

May follow a loss of consciousness


What are secondary forms of parkinsonism?

Drug induced: antipsychotics
Multiple cerebral infarcts
Repeated head injury