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Flashcards in Learning Disability Deck (11)
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What is the epidemiology of learning disability?

Mild (IQ: 50-69) 2.5% prevalence
Moderate (IQ: 35-49) 0.4% prevalence
Severe (IQ: 20-34)
Profound (IQ:


What are causes of learning disability ?

Antenatal cases
Perinatal causes
Postnatal causes


What are antenatal causes of learning disability?

Genetic e.g. PKU, Down's, fragile X
During pregnancy:
Alcohol, drugs, medications, smoking
Infections e.g. Rubella


What are perinatal causes of learning disability?

Neonatal hypoxia
Birth trauma


What are postnatal cause of learning disability?

Social deprivation
Lead poisoning
Infections e.g. Meningitis
Head injury


How do learning disabilities present clinically?

Delayed, reduced or absent abilities in:
Language, Schooling, Motor ability
Independent living, Employment, Social ability

Behavioural difficulties may arise secondary to:
Communication issues, psych or physical illness, epilepsy


What are the features of mild learning disability?

May go undiagnosed
Difficulties at school may be attributed to behavioural problems
Language reasonably good, though development might be delayed
Most live and work independently


What are the features of moderate learning disability?

Less developed language and cognitive abilities
Reduced self care abilities, limited motor skills
May need long term accommodation with family or in staff supported group home
May be able to undertake simple practical work in supported setting


What are the features of severe learning disability?

Marked motor impairment
Little/ no speech in early childhood
Simple tasks req assistance
Likely to stay in family home or require 24 hour staffed home


Mental health in learning disability

30-50% have additional mental health or autistic spectrum disorders
Mood and anxiety disorders common
Increased risk of schizophrenia in mild LD
Diagnostic overshadowing might lead all symptoms to be attributed to the LD


What is a learning disability?

A developmental condition characterised by global impairment in intelligence and difficulties with socially adaptive functioning