Flashcards in Learning Disability Deck (11)
What is the epidemiology of learning disability?
Mild (IQ: 50-69) 2.5% prevalence
Moderate (IQ: 35-49) 0.4% prevalence
Severe (IQ: 20-34)
What are causes of learning disability ?
What are antenatal causes of learning disability?
Genetic e.g. PKU, Down's, fragile X
Alcohol, drugs, medications, smoking
Infections e.g. Rubella
What are perinatal causes of learning disability?
What are postnatal cause of learning disability?
Infections e.g. Meningitis
How do learning disabilities present clinically?
Delayed, reduced or absent abilities in:
Language, Schooling, Motor ability
Independent living, Employment, Social ability
Behavioural difficulties may arise secondary to:
Communication issues, psych or physical illness, epilepsy
What are the features of mild learning disability?
May go undiagnosed
Difficulties at school may be attributed to behavioural problems
Language reasonably good, though development might be delayed
Most live and work independently
What are the features of moderate learning disability?
Less developed language and cognitive abilities
Reduced self care abilities, limited motor skills
May need long term accommodation with family or in staff supported group home
May be able to undertake simple practical work in supported setting
What are the features of severe learning disability?
Marked motor impairment
Little/ no speech in early childhood
Simple tasks req assistance
Likely to stay in family home or require 24 hour staffed home
Mental health in learning disability
30-50% have additional mental health or autistic spectrum disorders
Mood and anxiety disorders common
Increased risk of schizophrenia in mild LD
Diagnostic overshadowing might lead all symptoms to be attributed to the LD