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Flashcards in Organic Vocab Deck (24)
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1

Resonance structure

*don't move atoms
*only move electrons
*keep track of formal charges (same net charge)
*make sure there are octets

2

Importance of resonance structures

1) more octets and bonds
2) charges on compatably electronegative atoms
3) as little charge separation as possible
*don't have any atoms with +/-2 charge

3

Constitutional isomers

Aka structural isomers
Compounds w/ same formula, but different structures

4

Stereoisomers

Aka geometric isomers
Isomers that have same connectivity but different special arrangement
Eg. cis/trans, E/Z, enantiomers, diasteriomers

5

Lewis acids/bases

Electron acceptors/donators

6

Factors affecting acidity

*Electronegativity-more electronegative means more acidic
*size of anions-bigger the atom, more acidic
*resonance stabilization
*inductive effects
*hybridization (sp>>sp2>sp3)

7

Inductive effects

Electrons are donated or withdrawn through the sigma bonds of a molc (spreads out e- density)
Helps stabilize carbocations

8

Torsional/twisting strain

Destabilization caused by eclipsing bonds and repulsion between e-

9

Steric strain/hinderance

Interference btwn 2 bulky groups that are too close to each other- e- clouds are too close and destabilize

10

Reactivities of H's in chlorination

Tirtiary: secondary: primary

5.5: 4.5: 1

11

Reactivity of H's in bromonation

Tertiary: secondary: primary

1600: 97: 1

12

Hyperconjugation

Weak overlap of a sigma bond and p orbital (e- density in sigma bond is stabilized by being shared with p orbital)
Stabilizes cations

13

Carbene

Neutral reactive intermediates containing a C with 2 atoms bound to it and 2 nonbonding e-

14

Stereochemistry

Study of 3-D structure of molc

15

Chirality

ability to exist in 2 non-superimposable mirror images

16

Enantiomers

2 non-superimposable mirror images

17

Diasteriomers

Stereoisomers that aren't mirror images

18

Chiral center

An atom that is not superimposable on its mirror image

19

Stereocenter

An atom at which the interchange of 2 groups gives a stereoisomer

20

Chiral carbon

A C with 4 different groups attached to it

21

How many stereoisomers can something have?

2^n (n=chiral center)

22

Absolute configuration

Description of the spatial arrangement of the groups attached to a chiral center (R/S)
Uses Cahn-Ingold-Prelog Priority system

23

Optically active

A molecule that can rotate polarized light

24

Meso compound

Achiral compound with chiral centers