Flashcards in Organisation of the Central Nervous System Deck (18):
What structure connects the two hemispheres of the brain?
- bendy bit of white matter
- constant conversation between two hemispheres
What area is under the corpus callosum
- consists of thalamus and hypothalamus
Functions of the Cerebellum
- not initiation but coordination
- important for learning motor skills e.g. playing the piano
Functions of the Brain Stem?
- Contains nuclei which controls vital functions:
- respiratory centre + cardiac centre
- ascending/descending pathways go through the brain stem
- Cranial nerves attached to the brain stem providing sensory + motor innervation
Functions of the Diencephalon?
Thalamus - higher areas of diencephalon - relay station between cerebral cortex + other parts of CNS
Hypothalamus - inferior to the thalamus, important in coordinating homeostasis
Functions of the Cerebral Cortex
- Many nuclei
- one of them is the basal ganglion
- Basal Ganglia = group of nuclei which produce movement pattern and work with the motor cortex
Describe development of the brain?
First develops into 3 parts:
Forebrain - divides into: cerebral hemispheres + diencephalon
Midbrain - stays same
Hindbrain - pons, medulla, cerebellum
Describe the Cortex ?
Left side of the Left Hemisphere. 2 Types:
- Primary Cortical Areas
- Association Cortex
Describe the Primary Motor Cortex?
- axons travel down thedescendingpathway to stimulate motor neurons in the spinal cord
- somatotopic arrangement - upside down body
- contralateral arrangement
Describe Primary Somatosensory Cortex?
- adjacent to primary motor cortex
- receives general sensory information coming from body
Describe Primary Auditory Cortex?
- first to receive information from ears
Describe Primary Visual Cortex?
first to receive info from the retina
What is the Association Cortex?
Much higher functions take place
- learning, thinking, percep
What is Wernicke's Area?
Important for understanding language
What is Broca's Area?
Important for speech
Describe the Ventricular System?
- 2 large C shaped ventricles with a spur at back
- lateral ventricles in each hemisphere
- single midline ventricle
- middle of the diencephalon
- base of third ventricle narrows to form a fine channel
- tent shaped
- pons and medulla is in front
- lower part of the medulla the 4th ventricle which narrows and goes down into the spinal cord
What is Cerebrospinal Fluid?
- Produced by the Choroid Plexus (ependymal cell) found in the ventricles
- Filters the blood - removes cells and then secretes
- circulates through ventricular system --> 4th Ventricle
- 4th ventricle has holes so CSF can exit
- circulates in the sub-arachnoid space between the meninges
- reabsorbed into the venous system by Arachnoid Villi