Organisation of the Central Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organisation of the Central Nervous System Deck (18):

What structure connects the two hemispheres of the brain?

Corpus Callosum
- bendy bit of white matter
- constant conversation between two hemispheres


What area is under the corpus callosum


- consists of thalamus and hypothalamus


Functions of the Cerebellum

Motor Function
- not initiation but coordination
- important for learning motor skills e.g. playing the piano


Functions of the Brain Stem?

- Contains nuclei which controls vital functions:
- respiratory centre + cardiac centre
- ascending/descending pathways go through the brain stem
- Cranial nerves attached to the brain stem providing sensory + motor innervation


Functions of the Diencephalon?

Thalamus - higher areas of diencephalon - relay station between cerebral cortex + other parts of CNS

Hypothalamus - inferior to the thalamus, important in coordinating homeostasis


Functions of the Cerebral Cortex

- Many nuclei
- one of them is the basal ganglion
- Basal Ganglia = group of nuclei which produce movement pattern and work with the motor cortex


Describe development of the brain?

First develops into 3 parts:
- forebrain
- midbrain
- hindbrain

Forebrain - divides into: cerebral hemispheres + diencephalon

Midbrain - stays same

Hindbrain - pons, medulla, cerebellum


Describe the Cortex ?

Left side of the Left Hemisphere. 2 Types:

- Primary Cortical Areas
- Association Cortex


Describe the Primary Motor Cortex?

- axons travel down thedescendingpathway to stimulate motor neurons in the spinal cord

- somatotopic arrangement - upside down body

- contralateral arrangement


Describe Primary Somatosensory Cortex?

- adjacent to primary motor cortex
- receives general sensory information coming from body


Describe Primary Auditory Cortex?

- first to receive information from ears


Describe Primary Visual Cortex?

first to receive info from the retina


What is the Association Cortex?

Much higher functions take place
- learning, thinking, percep


What is Wernicke's Area?

Important for understanding language


What is Broca's Area?

Important for speech


Describe the Ventricular System?

Lateral Ventricles
- 2 large C shaped ventricles with a spur at back
- lateral ventricles in each hemisphere

3rd Ventricle
- single midline ventricle
- middle of the diencephalon

Cerebral Aqueduct
- base of third ventricle narrows to form a fine channel

4th Ventricle
- tent shaped
- pons and medulla is in front

Central Canal
- lower part of the medulla the 4th ventricle which narrows and goes down into the spinal cord


What is Cerebrospinal Fluid?

- Produced by the Choroid Plexus (ependymal cell) found in the ventricles
- Filters the blood - removes cells and then secretes
- circulates through ventricular system --> 4th Ventricle
- 4th ventricle has holes so CSF can exit
- circulates in the sub-arachnoid space between the meninges
- reabsorbed into the venous system by Arachnoid Villi


Describe the Layers of the Meninges?

- Dura, Arachnoid, Pia Mater
- between arachnoid and the pia have the sub-arachnoid space where CSF can circulate
- venous sinuses over the surface of the brain
- out-pockets of the arachnoid membrane push through the walls of the venous sinuses for CSF reabsorption - ARACHNOID VILLI
- blockage --> CSF buildup = hydrocephalus