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Flashcards in Organisational Change Deck (17):

What is change management

The continuous process of aligning an organistion in its market place and by doing it better than competition


What are the interrelated variables under Leavitt's Organisational System. 

Whatever the Trigger for change, change managers must consider the impacy on all these variables

  1. Technology
  2. Structure
  3. People
  4. Task


Change can happen at three levels. What are they?

  1. Structures
  2. Org climate
  3. Individuals


What are the characteristics of Cultural Web when we look at change

  • Symbols
  • Stories
  • Power Structures
  • Org Structues
  • Routines and Rituals
  • Control Systems
  • Paradigm


What are the features of Lewin's 3 stage change model


  • Create motivation to change
  • Reinforcing willingness to change
  • Sold in
  • Communication


  • Moves from current to future
  • Participation and involvement
  • Identify new desirable state or norms


What are the four (in order) stages of Gemini 4R's framework for planned strategic change

  • Reframing (setting corporate vision)
  • Restructuring (Remove elements that do not add value)
  • Revitalising (New products/markets)
  • Renewal (develop skills of individuals)


Beer and Nohria had Theory E and Theory O when it comes to change

​Theory E 

  • Top down
  • Planned and programmatic
  • External consultants

Theory O

  • Focus on culture change
  • Participative
  • Change is emergent


What are the ways to overcome change according to Kotter and Schlesinger

  • Education and Communication: Sold into staff
  • Participation and Involvement: May alleviate the resistance if they are involved in change
  • Facilitation and Support: Training and Councilling
  • Negotiation and Agreement: Unions to be considered and maybe Incentives to agree change
  • Maniuplation: Covert way but may increase resistance
  • Coercion: Rapid change and power enforced


Bridges & Mitchell say it is important to assit people through change with the 4P's. What are they?

  1. Purpose - why is change needed
  2. Picture - where will change lead
  3. Plan - steps taken to get there
  4. Part - people's part in reaching goal


What are J, S & W 5 styles of managing change

  1. Education and communication
  2. Participation
  3. Interventions (undertaken by a change agent and delegates to teams/indiviuals)
  4. Direction (top down style)
  5. Coercion (extreme form of the above)


Accoring to Kotter what are the 8 possible causes to unsuccessful implementation of change

  1. Not enough urgency
  2. Failure to create sufficient support base
  3. Vision not clearly developed
  4. Vision poorly communicated
  5. Obstacles block the vision
  6. Failure to create short term wins
  7. Systems and policies not aligned
  8. Not refreezing - failure to anchor changes


Explain the GROW model when it comes to change

  • This is the development of managers capabilities through mentoring and coaching
  • Goals - what the learner wants to achieve
  • Reality - current position of learner
  • Options - to develop skills and achieve objectives
  • What - what is leanrer going to do and need to achieve


What are the change roles

Leader - Key leader

Advocate - Who suggests change

Sponsor - Legitimises change

Agent - Implements change and manages



What is the role of Change Agent

  • Define the problem
  • Suggest and select solutions
  • Implement change
  • Communicate change in the Org


What attributes should a Change Agent have?

  • Encourge staff to participate
  • Reduce uncertainity around change
  • Question past assumptions and beliefs
  • Think creatively
  • Manipulate and exploit trigger for change


What advantages does an external Change Agent bring

  • Fresh perspective
  • Expertise
  • Best Practice (from past experience)
  • Resources - full dedication


What are and explain Tuckman's stages of Team Development

Forming - collection of individuals coming together

Storming - Open conflict between members

Norming - settling down with norms and procedures evolving

Performing - execute its task