Organs of the GI Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organs of the GI Tract Deck (43):
1

Thoracic esophagus

pierces the diaphragm at T 10
turns to the left and enters the stomach at the cardiac orifice at T 11

2

sliding hiatal hernia

esophageal hiatus of diaphragm enlarges or weakens
abdominal esophagus and parts of the stomach heriate into the thorax

3

paraesophageal hiatal hernia

a defect in diaphragm next to the esophageal hiatus
permits fundus of stomach to herniate

4

stomach

left end - fixed at T10-11
right end - fixed at L1-2

5

Duodenum

C shaped
10 inches long
Located at L1-4

6

1st part of duodenum - superior

starts at pyloric sphincter
rugae
2 inches long
held in place by hepatoduodenal ligament
posterior - portal vein, hepatic artery, bile duct
inferior - pancreas

7

2nd part of duodenum - descending

3 inches long
vili and pailla (biliary and pancreatic ducts empty)
all retroperitoneal
anterior - gall bladder, R lobe of liver, transverse colon
posterior - R kidney and ureter
medial - head of pancreas
bile and pancreatic ducts enter into he second part of the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla

8

3rd part of duodenum - horizontal

villi
superior mesenteric artery and vein and the root of the mesentery cross the anterior surface
superior - head of pancreas
anterior and inferior - jejunum

9

4th part of duodenum - ascending

becomes intraperitoneal
anterior - root of mesentery and jejunum
posterior - left margin of the aorta and medial border of psoas muscle
held in place by the suspensory ligament which anchors the 4th part of the duodenum to the R crus of the diaphragm

10

Jejunum and Ileum

20 feet long
jejunum - starts at duodenal-jejunal junction and ileum ends at the ileo-cecal valve
very mobile and help to posterior wall by THE mesentery
framed by large intestine

11

Jejunum

8-10 feet long
2/5 of free small intestine
simple vascular arcades, long vasa recta,
more vascular
greater diameter,
thicker,
more plicae circularis

12

Ileum

10-12 feet long
3/5 of free small intestine
compound vascular arcades, shorter vasa recta, is less vascular
smaller diameter
thinner wall
fewer plicae circularis

13

Meckel's diverticulum

feature of the ileum
arises from the antimesenteric border of the ileum
occurs in 2% of population
2 feet from the ileocecal junction
2 inches long
remnant of the vitelline duct

14

THE mesentery

15 cm long at the root
attaches the jejunum & ileum to the posterior body wall
crosses
L 1-2
3rd part of duodenum
aorta
IVC
R ureter
R gonadal vessels
R psoas major
ends at right SI joint

15

large intestine

highly mobile
function - fecal formation, transport , and evacuation, water absorption and mucus secretion

16

Taenia coli

3 bands of longitudinal m on outside of the colon
converge at the root of the appendix
produce haustrae that slow the movement of feces

17

Appendices epiploicae

tags of fat
characteristic of the large intestine

18

cecum

no epiploic appendages
blind puch inferior to ileocecal orifice
iliocolic valve is 2 folds that are not a true sphincter
ileal papilla is a cone-like projection of the ileum into the cecum
the opening for the appendix is inferior to the ilial papilla

19

vermiform appendix

attached to the postero medial part o the cecum
located at the unction of the 3 taenia coli
9-10 cm long and supported by a mesoappendix
position variable

20

ascending colon

R iliac fossa to R flexure
ant. to R kidney
secondarily retroperitoneal except lowest part

21

transverse colon

R colic flexure to L colic flexure
intraperitoneal
phrenicocolic ligament - L flexure to diaphragm
Transverse mesocolon - pancreas to greater omentum

22

descending colon

L flexure to pelvic brim
secondarily retroperitoneal

23

sigmoid colon

sigmoid mesocolon
rectosigmoid junction - ant. to S3
intraperitoenal

24

rectum

b/w sigmoid colon and anal canal
contains rectal ampulla (dialated terminal part of rectum)
anorectal line - a line joining the tops of the anal columns
3 transverse rectal folds - superior, intermediate, inferior
puborectalis m - relaxation leads to defecation

25

anal canal

anal valves - at the base of the anal columns
anal sinuses - spaces b/w and at the inferior part of the anal columns
pectinate line - a line joining the inferior ends of the anal valves

26

spleen

left hypochondriac region
parallels left ribs 9,10, and 11
midaxillary line b/w stomach and diaphragm
size of hand
normally not palpable below the costal margin
develops in dorsal mesentery from mesoderm

27

pancreas

mostly retropperitoneal
located L1-2
Head - in duodenal curve
Body - triangular cross-section
Neck - b/w head and body
Tail - anterior to spleen

28

liver

located in the R upper quadrant
smaller left lobe is located in the left upper quadrant

29

gall bladder

lies in hepatic fossa
bile duct formed from the cystic and common hepatic ducts

30

4 coats of the stomach

mucosa w/ rugae
submucosa - core of rugae
muscularis - circuar, longitudinal, oblique
serosa - visceral peritoneum

31

pyloric sphincter

L1-2 at transpyloric plane

32

cardiac orifice

circular m of lower esophagus
mucosal fold at cardiac notch
crual fibers of diaphragm

33

above pectinate line

internal iliac LN
simple columnar
endoderm
superior rectal a and v
internal hemorrhoids (not painful)
inferior hypogastric plexus

34

below pectinate line

superficial inguinal LN
stratified squamous
ectoderm
middle & inferior rectal a & v.
external hemorrhoids (painful)
inferiorrectal n.

35

pancreas relationships

posterior to neck- SMA and SMV
Superior - splenic v and a and duodenum
Tail is against spleen
posterior to body - IVC and aorta
anterior - stomach

36

pancreatic duct system

develops from ventral and dorsal bud in mesentery
rotation of the stomach and duodenum brings buds together
pancreatic and bile ducts joint to make hepatopancreatic ampulla to enter duodenum

37

Lobes of the liver

L
R
Caudate
Quadrate

38

falciform ligament

double layer of peritoneum that connects liver to the anterior wall
contains teh obliterated umbilical vein

39

porta hepatis

transverse fissure b/w caudate and quadrate lobes
transmits portal triad
Hepatic a, portal v, bile duct

40

ligamentum teres

in the edge of the falciform
obliterated umbilical vein

41

ligamentum venosum

the old ductus venosus
used to connect the umbilical v w/ the inferior vena cava

42

hepatic fossa

for gall bladder

43

extrahepatic bile passages

R hepatic duct
L hepatic duct
together form the common hepatic duct
cystic duct
bile duct