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Clin Med IV > Ortho > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ortho Deck (59)
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1

chondral fracture

articular cartilage

2

transchondral fracture

bone and transverse the articular cartilage

3

osteochondral fracture

both the bone and articular cartilage

4

3 aspects of displacement

Translation
Angulation
Rotation

5

Translation

draw line down center of bone - not continuous at the fracture site
direction of translation of distal fragment compared to proximal
described as %

6

Angulation

line drawn down center of bone angled at fracture
direction of angulation of distal fragment compared to proximal
described in degrees

7

Rotation

turning of the distal fracture fragment in relation to proximal portion
orientation of joints above and below fracture

8

Distraction

fractures seperated by a gap with no overlap
common in transverse fractures from a tension force- pulls or stretches two objects apart

9

Dislocation

joint out of articular capsule

10

Subluxation

joint goes out of capsule but comes back in

11

Impaction

wedged into each other
stable fracture

12

Avulsion

Caused by abnormal tensile stress on ligaments or tendons
Typical locations - hands, feet, pelvis

13

Transverse Fracture

perpendicular to the long axis of the bone
commonly from direct force, or tension force
common in forearm/leg - often stable

14

Oblique Fracture

Commonly Indirect force
compression + angulation = shear force
Inherently unstable, repaired in OR

15

Spiral Fracture

twisting movement through the long bone axis
rotations/shear force
inherently unstable, repaired in OR
very uncommon

16

Comminuted Fracture

> 2 fracture fragments
unstable, repaired in OR

17

Minimal Comminuted Fracture

small fx fragments next to larger fx line

18

Moderate to Severe Comminuted Fracture

several large fx fragments

19

Butterfly Fragment

indirect force
bending of the bone with tension vector on the convex side and compression vector on the concave side

20

Butterfly Fragment location on bone

produced along the concave, compression side

21

Butterfly Fragment is subtype of which fracture

Comminuted fracture

22

Greenstick Fracture

Incomplete fracture of long bone
bending force applied perpendicular to shaft
Incomplete fracture on convex cortex, concave cortex becomes bent, but without visible crack

23

Buckle Fracture =

Torus Fracture

24

Buckle Fracture

incomplete fracture
metaphyseal diaphyseal junction after FOOSH
Very stable

25

AC joint

AP w/ weights
AP w/o weights

26

Chest

PA
Lateral (full inspiration)

27

Clavicle

AP
Axial (20 degree cephalad AKA tube tilted 20 degrees towards head)

28

Humerus

AP
Lateral
Possibly Grashey

29

Ribs

AP
Oblique
- upper ribs: inspiration
- lower ribs: expiration

30

SC Joint

AP
Oblique (bilateral)

31

Proximal Humerus Fracture

Unstable
ORIF
Anterior dislocation is most common

32

Elbow

AP
External
Oblique
Lateral

33

Fingers

AP
Oblique of hand
Lateral of effected finger

34

Hand

AP
Oblique
Lateral

35

Thumb

AP
Oblique
lateral

36

Wrist

AP
Oblique

37

Forearm

AP
Lateral

38

Radial Head Fracture

Note anterior fat pad sign

39

Nightstick Fracture

direct force of forearm
protective injury

40

Colles Fracture

Common of distal radius
Result of FOOSH
Extra-articular

41

Metacarpal Fracuter

10% of all fractures, 40% of had fractures
5th metacarpal - 25% of all metacarpal fxs
usu direct trauma, can be indirect

42

Hip

AP pelvis
Frog lateral (legs in diamond while laying down)

43

Ankle

Ap
Mortise (internal rotation of leg 15/20 degree, intermalleolar line parallel to detector
Lateral

44

Femur

AP
Lateral

45

Foot

AP
Oblique
Lateral

46

Knee

< 40 y/o
-AP
-Lateral
-Tunnel
- Sunrise
> 40 y/o
- PA, bilateral, weight bearing (AKA30 degree PA flexed view)
- Bilateral tunnel
-Bilateral sunrise
- lateral affected knee

47

Tib-Fib

AP
Lateral

48

Heel

Axial
Lateral Calcaneus

49

CT > X-ray

subtle fractures
articular extension of fracture
presence of articular step-off/gap

50

MRI

soft tissue eval
Diagnosis of occult fractures
Associated ligament or articular cartilage injury
Modality of choice:
- disc herniation
- internal derangement of joints

51

Ultrasound

trauma - assess soft tissue injury

52

Bone Scan

metastases
Stress fractures
insufficiency fractures

53

Four rotator cuff muscles

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres Minor
Subscapularis

54

Suprspinatus

initiates and acts throughout abduction cycle
most commonly torn

55

Infraspinatus

ER with arm in neutral

56

Teres minor

ER in 90 degrees of abduction

57

Subscapularis

main internal rotator of the shoulder

58

Proximal Humerus Blood Supply

2 branches of the axillary artery
- anterior humeral circumflex artery
- posterior humeral circumflex artery

59

Shoulder

AP
Grashey
Y-Scapular view