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Flashcards in Orthopaedics Deck (350)
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1

What is ankylosis?

Stiffening of a joint with fibrous/bony union across it

2

What is arthrodesis?

Surgical fusion of a joint

3

What is arthroplasty?

Creation of an artificial joint

4

What is arthroscopy?

"Keyhole" joint inspection/surgery

5

What is osteotomy?

Surgical cutting/wedging and realignment of bone

6

What is spondylolisthesis?

Slippage of one vertebra over another

7

What is spondylolysis?

Defect in pars interarticularis of a vertebra

8

What is spondylosis?

Degenerative disease of the spine

9

What is valgus deformity?

Deformity of limb laterally from its normal axis

10

What is varus deformity?

Deformity of limb medially from its normal axis

11

Which movements test bones/muscles in the neck? Which joints are responsible for these movements?

Flexion, extension (atlanto-occipital joint)
Rotation (atlanto-axial joint)
Lateral flexion (cervical spine)

12

Which type of XR is used to investigate the cervical spine?

Cross-table lateral XR

13

What is assessed on a cross-table lateral XR of the cervical spine?

Alignment: of vertebral bodies, spinous processes, spinal canal
Bone contours
Cartilages
Soft tissues
All 7 cervical vertebrae should be seen!

14

What is cervical spondylosis?

Degeneration of the cervical spine (annulus fibrosis degenerates, bony spurs form)

15

List clinical features of cervical spondylosis

Slow-onset neck stiffness
Pain, radiating to shoulders/occiput
Radicular pain

16

Outline treatment for cervical spondylosis

Pain relief
Physiotherapy
Surgical decompression of nerve impingement

17

List clinical features of a prolapsed cervical disc

Stiff neck
Arm pain
Dermatomal distribution of symptoms if nerve root compression

18

Which cervical joint is the most unstable?

Atlanto-axial joint
Very prone to subluxation

19

What is cervical rib?

Congenital development of the costal process of C7 produces a rib-like deformity

20

List clinical features of cervical rib

Pain
Numbness in hand/forearm
Muscle wasting
Thoracic outlet compression
Weak radial pulse
Forearm cyanosis

21

Outline treatment for cervical rib

Physiotherapy to strengthen shoulder elevators
Surgical removal of rib

22

What is torticollis?

Dystonia due to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle spasm

23

List clinical features of torticollis

Tilted head
Retarded facial growth
Thickened muscle
Nodding spasms

24

Respectively, what is the most likely shoulder pathology if a patient presents with generalised pain on movement vs. pain on specific movement?

Generalised pain: arthritis, capsulitis
Specific pain: impingement, muscle tear

25

Which rotator cuff is responsible for shoulder abduction?

Supraspinatus

26

Which rotator cuff is responsible for shoulder extension?

Teres minor

27

Which rotator cuff is responsible for shoulder internal rotation?

Subscapularis

28

Which rotator cuff is responsible for shoulder external rotation?

Infraspinatus

29

Which shoulder pathologies are the following tests used for: Jobe's test, Hawkin's test, apprehension test, scarf test?

Jobe's test for impingement/supraspinatus tear
Hawkin's test for impingement
Apprehension test for instability
Scarf test for acromioclavicular joint disease

30

List aetiology/risk factors for shoulder instability

Atraumatic (5%): ligamentous laxity, teenagers
Traumatic: usually anterior subluxation/dislocation