Flashcards in Orthopaedics Deck (350)
What is ankylosis?
Stiffening of a joint with fibrous/bony union across it
What is arthrodesis?
Surgical fusion of a joint
What is arthroplasty?
Creation of an artificial joint
What is arthroscopy?
"Keyhole" joint inspection/surgery
What is osteotomy?
Surgical cutting/wedging and realignment of bone
What is spondylolisthesis?
Slippage of one vertebra over another
What is spondylolysis?
Defect in pars interarticularis of a vertebra
What is spondylosis?
Degenerative disease of the spine
What is valgus deformity?
Deformity of limb laterally from its normal axis
What is varus deformity?
Deformity of limb medially from its normal axis
Which movements test bones/muscles in the neck? Which joints are responsible for these movements?
Flexion, extension (atlanto-occipital joint)
Rotation (atlanto-axial joint)
Lateral flexion (cervical spine)
Which type of XR is used to investigate the cervical spine?
Cross-table lateral XR
What is assessed on a cross-table lateral XR of the cervical spine?
Alignment: of vertebral bodies, spinous processes, spinal canal
All 7 cervical vertebrae should be seen!
What is cervical spondylosis?
Degeneration of the cervical spine (annulus fibrosis degenerates, bony spurs form)
List clinical features of cervical spondylosis
Slow-onset neck stiffness
Pain, radiating to shoulders/occiput
Outline treatment for cervical spondylosis
Surgical decompression of nerve impingement
List clinical features of a prolapsed cervical disc
Dermatomal distribution of symptoms if nerve root compression
Which cervical joint is the most unstable?
Very prone to subluxation
What is cervical rib?
Congenital development of the costal process of C7 produces a rib-like deformity
List clinical features of cervical rib
Numbness in hand/forearm
Thoracic outlet compression
Weak radial pulse
Outline treatment for cervical rib
Physiotherapy to strengthen shoulder elevators
Surgical removal of rib
What is torticollis?
Dystonia due to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle spasm
List clinical features of torticollis
Retarded facial growth
Respectively, what is the most likely shoulder pathology if a patient presents with generalised pain on movement vs. pain on specific movement?
Generalised pain: arthritis, capsulitis
Specific pain: impingement, muscle tear
Which rotator cuff is responsible for shoulder abduction?
Which rotator cuff is responsible for shoulder extension?
Which rotator cuff is responsible for shoulder internal rotation?
Which rotator cuff is responsible for shoulder external rotation?
Which shoulder pathologies are the following tests used for: Jobe's test, Hawkin's test, apprehension test, scarf test?
Jobe's test for impingement/supraspinatus tear
Hawkin's test for impingement
Apprehension test for instability
Scarf test for acromioclavicular joint disease