Orthopedics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Orthopedics Deck (190):
1

What is the first line treatment for osteoarthritis?

Exercise, ROM, and strengthening

2

What are heberdens nodes associated with?

Osteoarthritis

3

What type of arthritis affects the metacarpal joints?

Rheumatoid arthritis

4

What is the test for impingement syndrome (shoulder pain)

Painful arc test & Hawkins-Kennedy test

5

What is the McMurray's test for?

Torn meniscus (knee)

6

Where is the lateral epicondyle?

Elbow
Lateral epicondylitis is tennis elbow

7

Where is the scaphoid?

Inner aspect of wrist bone

8

Common injury to wrist during fall?

Scaphoid fracture

9

What is the diagnostic test for a scaphoid fracture?

Snuffbox tenderness

10

What is the lower back pain test that is positive for radiculopathy?

Straight leg raise

11

What is an overreaction during physical exam with inappropriate physical signs?

Waddell's signs

12

What type of lower back pain is from L5-S1 and radiates down leg, foot, or ankle?

Sciatica

13

What is the diagnostic test for sciatica?

Straight leg raise

14

What is the hip bone?

Trochanter

15

Osteoarthritis in a patient causes what type of hip joint pain?

Anterior hip/groin pain

16

When a patient complains of heel pain or tenderness, they have...

Plantar fasciitis

17

What test is for an acl in knee?

Anterior draw test

18

What condition is associates with a positive MTP squeeze test?

Mortons neuroma

19

What condition is associated with a positive finkelstein test?

DeQuervain's tensosynovitis

20

Burning pain between the 3rd and 4th toes.

Morton's neuroma

21

Positive tinel's test & positive Phalen's test

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

22

Type of fracture secondary to systemic disease?

Pathologic fracture

23

Common cause of posterior knee pain

Bakers cyst

24

Overuse injury of a bone

Stress fracture/ takes 4-6 weeks to heal

25

Dorsal thumb pain is a classic symptom of

DeQuervains tenosynovitis

26

Injury to a bone that does not result in a fracture

Contusion

27

Injury to a muscle is a

Strain

28

Injury to a ligament is a

Sprain

29

What are the nodes on the PIP nodes secondary to arthritis?

Bouchnard's nodes

30

Joint stiffness lasts <60 minutes usually

Osteoarthritis

31

RICE is acronym for treatment for

Sprain

32

Term that describes compression of the spinal cord

Cauda equine syndrome
Loss of bowel/bladder function

33

The Lachman maneuver is used to detect what

Knee instability

34

Heberden’s node’s are commonly seen in

Degenerative joint disease

35

The drawer sign is performed on the knee or ankle to assess for

Instability of the knee

36

What test is used to identify inflammation of the median nerve as seen with carpal tunnel syndrome

Phelan test

37

Wrist pain on palpation of the anatomic snuffbox. Pain on axial loading of the thumb. History of falling forward with outstretched hand to break the fall. Initial x-ray of the wrist may be normal, but a repeat x-ray in two weeks will show the scaphoid fracture. High-risk of a vascular necrosis and non-union. Splint rest and referred to a hand surgeon.

Navicular fracture (scaphoid bone fracture)

38

What is an important stabilizer of the metacarpal joint

Scaphoid

39

An injury to bone is a

Contusion

40

If a patient has a positive snuff box tenderness test, what should be done

Treat as a fracture until proven otherwise. If x-ray is negative, consider MRI or CT as definitive exams. Splint thumb

41

Fracture of the distal radius of the forearm along with dorsal displacement of wrist. History of falling forward with outstretched hand. This fracture is also known as the dinner fork fracture due to the appearance of arm and wrist after the fracture. The most common type of wrist fracture.

Colles fracture

42

History of slipping or falling. Sudden onset of one sided hip pain. Unable to walk and bear weight on affected hip. If mild fracture, may bear weight on affected hip. If displaced fracture, presence of severe hip pain with external rotation of the hip/leg and leg shortening. More common in elderly. Elderly have a one year mortality rate from 12% to 37%.

Hip fracture

43

If a patient has hip pain, at night, what must be ruled out

Malignancy, inflammatory process, osteomyelitis

44

If a patient has lateral hip pain that is aggravated by direct pressure what is a diagnostic consideration

Trochanteric bursitis

45

If a patient has hip pain with use, that is better with rest what diagnostic consideration

Structural joint problem or Osseo arthritis

46

If a patient has constant hip pain, especially at night what must be considered

Infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic

47

If a patient has anterior hip/groin pain, what diagnosis should be considered

Hip joints,osteo arthritis

48

If a patient complains of posterior hip pain what diagnosis should be considered

S I joint, LBP

49

History of significant or high energy trauma such as a motor vehicle or motorcycle accident. Signs and symptoms depend on degree of injury to the pelvic bones and other pelvic structures such as nerves, blood vessels, and pelvic organs. Look for ecchymosis and swelling in the lower abdomen, the hips, groin, and/or scrotum. May have bladder and/or fecal incontinence, vaginal or rectal bleeding, hematuria, numbness etc. may cause internal hemorrhage, which can be life threatening. Check airway, breathing, and circulation first

Pelvic fracture

50

Acute onset of saddle anesthesia, bladder incontinence, fecal incontinence. Accompanied by bilateral leg numbness and weakness. Pressure on a sacral nerve root results in inflammatory and ischemic changes to the nerves. A surgical emergency. Need spinal decompression. Refer to ED.

Cauda Equina Syndrome

51

Acute and sudden onset of tearing severe low back/abdominal pain. Presence of abdominal bruit with abdominal pulsation. Patient with signs and symptoms of shock. More common in elderly males atherosclerosis, white rice, and smokers.

Low back pain from a dissecting abdominal aneurysm

52

What conditions outside of the spine can cause back pain

Pancreatitis, nephrolithiasis, prostatitis, Pyelonephritis , AAA, herpes zoster

53

When a patient presents with lower back pain what are some clues to systemic disease

History of cancer i.e. breasts, prostate, lung, fibroid, kidney. Age over 50 years old. Unexplained weight loss. Duration of pain greater than four weeks. Nighttime pain. Only get lumbar x-ray in these situations.

54

What test do you perform for a patient that presents with lower back pain

Straight leg raise is positive it is radiculopathy

55

Inappropriate physical signs on physical exam, faking illness or pain, overreaction during exam

Waddell’s signs

56

Nerve root irritation at L5 through S1. Sharp or burning pain radiating down the leg to foot or ankle. May occur as numbness or tingling.

Sciatica

57

Examiner raises patients extended leg with the ankle Dorsiflexed. Positive if sciatica is reproduced between 10 and 60° in the affected leg. May confirm radiculopathy

Straight leg raise

58

What imaging is done for a patient that complains with lower back pain

Plain radiographs AP and lateral of lumbar spine; trauma, suspected malignancy, infection add ESR and CRP he.

59

When is an MRI indicated in a patient that presents with lower back pain

It is the gold standard test for disc disease. Demonstrates discs, ligaments, nerve roots, epidural that, shape and size of the spinal canal. Looks at soft tissue.

60

If cloudy synovial fluid is found what must be done

Order culture and sensitivity because this can be indicative of an infection

61

Damage to what joint may cause locking of the knees and knee instability

Meniscus

62

Connects muscle to the bone.

Tendon

63

Connects bone to bone

Ligaments

64

Saclike structures located on the anterior and posterior areas of the joints that act as padding. Filled with synovial fluid when inflamed.

Bursae
When bursae is filled with synovial fluid and is inflamed it os bursitis

65

What is the gold standard imaging study for injuries of the cartilage, meniscus, tendons, ligaments, or any joints of the body

MRI

66

What imaging study and emits radiation and detects bleeding, aneurysms, masses, pelvic and bone trauma and fractures

CT scan

67

Metal implants, pacemakers, aneurysm clips, and metallic joints are contraindicated in what diagnostic imaging study

MRI

68

What is Venus recurvatum

Hyper extension or backward curvature of the knees

69

What is genu valgum

Knock knees
Think of “gum stuck between the knees”

70

What is genu varum

Bow legs

71

When should RICE be initiated after musculoskeletal trauma

48 hours

72

When should isometric exercise be introduced after musculoskeletal trauma

It is useful during the early phase of recovery before regular active exercises performed. Defined as the controlled and sustained contraction and relaxation of a muscle group. Less stressful on joints than regular exercise. Usually done first before exercise post injury. Nonweightbearing exercises.

73

What is a test for knee stability

Drawer test. And diagnostic sign of a torn or ruptured ligament.

74

What causes DeQuervain’s tensovitis and where is it located in my hand

It is caused by inflammation of the tendon and it’s sheath and is located at the base of the thumb

75

What is the screening test for DeQuervain’s tendinitis

Finkelstein’s test
Which is positive if there is pain and tenderness on the wrist upon ulnar deviation

76

Knee pain and the click sound upon manipulation of the knee is positive. Suggests injury to the medial meniscus.

McMurray’s test

77

What is the gold standard test for joint damage

MRI

78

What test is for knee laxity and is suggestive of ACL damage of the knee and more sensitive than the anterior drawer test for ACL damage

Lachman’s sign

79

Acute or recurrent pain on the bottom of the feet that is aggravated by walking. Caused by micro tears in the plantar fascia due to tightness of the Achilles tendon. Higher risk with obesity, diabetics, aerobic exercise, flat feet, prolonged standing

Plantar fasciitis

80

What is the treatment plan for plantar fasciitis

NSAIDs. Use orthotic foot appliance at night times a few weeks. Ice pack to affected foot. Stretching and massaging of the foot: rolling a golf ball with soles of foot several times a week. Lose weight. Consider x-ray to rule out fracture, heel spurs, complicated case. Refer to podiatry as needed.

81

Inflammation of the digital nerve of the foot between the third and fourth metatarsal’s. Increased risk with high-heeled shoes, tight shoes, obesity, dancers, runners.

Morton’s neuroma

82

What condition can cause a small nodule on the space between the third and fourth toes on physical exam

Morton’s neuroma

83

What is the screening test for Morton’s Neuroma

Mulder rest
Grasp 1st & 5th metatarsals and squeeze the forefoot. + if hearing a click along with a pt report of pain during compression. Pain is relieved when the compression is stopped.

84

What is the treatment plan for Morton’s neuroma

Avoid wearing tight narrow shoes and high heels. Use for front foot pad. Where well padded shoes. Diagnosed by clinical presentation and history. Refer to podiatrist.

85

Pain exacerbated by activity; relieved by rest, sometimes occurring at night. A.m. stiffness resulting in less than or equal to 60 minutes. Tenderness to palpation of infected joints. Crepitus is audible. Joint effusion may be present. Osteophytes and joint space narrowing are present

Osteoarthritis or degenerative joint Disease

86

What is the first line treatment for osteoarthritis

Exercise and range of motion and strengthening.
Weight loss if appropriate, patient education, heat and ultrasound

87

What is the pharmacologic treatment for osteoarthritis

Acetaminophen PRN first then scheduled up to 3 g daily. If this doesn’t work then NSAIDs PRN 2-four week trial at high dose is no relief. If there is no release on three different NSAIDs, steroid injection, consider referral

88

Can you reprice an NSAID to a patient that had an MI

No. Use with caution in patients with cardiac problems.

89

A patient who has osteoarthritis takes NSAIDs almost daily. Which lab tests should be done annually

CBC, BUN/CR, ALT

90

What joints are mostly affected by osteoarthritis

Hips, knees, and the hands.

91

What risk factors are there for osteoarthritis

Older age, overuse of joints, and positive family history

92

Bony nodules on the distal interphalangeal joint’s associated with osteoarthritis

Heberden’s nodes

93

Bony nodules on the proximal interphalangeal joints associated with osteoarthritis

Bouchnard’s nodes

94

Age greater than 75 years old what pharmacologic treatment should be used for osteoarthritis

Topical NSAIDs vs. oral form

95

When a patient presents with osteoarthritis symptoms what must be ruled out

Osteoporosis

96

If a patient has a history of uncomplicated ulcer, aspirin, Coumadin, PUD, and platelet disorder, can they be on an NSAID

No

97

What type of arthritis causes joint stiffness to last longer, involves multiple joints, and has symmetrical distribution. It is also accompanied by systemic symptoms like fatigue, fever, normocytic anemia, etc.

Rheumatoid arthritis

98

What nobody is located at the DIP joint

Heberden’s
- the den ending on the word is the letter D for DIP joint

99

What is the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis

All of the treatments for osteoarthritis plus systemic steroids, antimalarial’s such as plaquenil, anti-metabolite such as methotrexate, and Biologics such as Humira or Enbrel

100

A woman of age 20 to 35 years old presents with a classic rash in a maculopapular Butterfly shaped rash on the middle of the face or Malar rash. May have non pruritus thick scaly red rashes on sun exposed areas called discoid rash. Urinanalysis is positive for protein urea.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

101

How do you manage lupus

Referral to rheumatologist

102

What is pertinence patient education for lupus

Avoid sun between 10 AM to 4 PM because it causes rashes to break out. Cover skin with high SPF sunblock. Sun protective clothing such as hats with wide Rams, long sleeved shirts. More sensitive to indoor fluorescent lighting. Use non-fluorescent lightbulbs.

103

Adult to middle-aged female complains of gradual onset of symptoms over months with daily fatigue, low-grade fever, generalized bodyaches, and myalgia. Complains of generalized aching joints, which usually involves the fingers/hands and wrist. Morning stiffness lasts longer than osteoarthritis with painful, warm, and swollen joints. Swollen fingers with warm tender joints (PIP & DIP). Also called sausage joints

Rheumatoid arthritis

104

Systemic autoimmune disorder that is more common in women. Mainly manifested through multiple joint inflammation and damage. Patients are at higher risk for other autoimmune diseases, graves disease, pernicious anemia, and others.

Rheumatoid arthritis

105

What conditions have poly arthritis

Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, fitz disease

106

Morning joint stiffness lasts greater than 60 minutes, affected joints swell, symptoms present at least six weeks

Rheumatoid arthritis

107

What is the work up for rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid factor, anti-– CCP antibody’s, ESR, CRP, ANA, CBC, BUN, LFT, CR, uric acid level, urinalysis

108

Heberden’s nodes are solely associated with

Osteoarthritis

109

The primary joint that is affected Are the hands and wrists, metacarpophalangeal, absent heberden’s nodes, joint is soft warm & tender, + RF, CCP, ESR, CRP

Rheumatoid arthritis

110

Hips and knees are the primary joint affected, carpometacarpal, DIO, + heberden’s nodes, joint is bony and hard, -RF, CCP, ESR, CRP

osteoarthritis

111

How do you manage rheumatoid arthritis

Early referral to rheumatology
patients aware prescribed biologics such as infliximab -mab
And nonbiologics such as methotrexate

112

Swan’s neck deformity is found in

Rheumatoid arthritis. It is found in 50% of patients. Flexion of the DIP joint with hyperextension of the PIP joints

113

Boutonnière deformity is found in

Rheumatoid arthritis. Hyper extension of the DIP with flexion of the PIP joint

114

If an x-ray shows bony erosion, joint space narrowing, and subluxations i.e. dislocation what must be considered

Rheumatoid arthritis

115

Can A patient with rheumatoid arthritis continue to take a biologic drug if they have signs and symptoms of infection such as fever or sore throat

No

116

Uveitis, scleritis, vasculitis, pericarditis, are all associated with

Rheumatoid arthritis
Uveitis needs an opthomologist STAT

117

Swelling of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye that supplies blood to the retina.

Uveitis. Refer to ophthalmologist immediately. Patient treated with high dosed steroid for several weeks.

118

What kind of drug is Plaquenil

Antimalarial

119

What type of drug is methotrexate

DMARD

120

Middle-aged male presents with painful, hot, red, and swollen metatarsal phalangeal joint of greater toe i.e. Podagra. Patient is limping due to severe pain from weight bearing on affected toe. History of previous attacks on the same site. Precipitated by alcohol, meets, or seafood.

Gout

121

What condition has tophi

Chronic gout.
Tophi are small white modules full of urates on ears and joints

122

What will the labs show in gout

Uric acid level will be elevated more than 7 mg.

123

What is the treatment for an acute presentation of gout

Indomethacin (Indocin) BID or naproxen sodium BID PRN.
If no relief, combine with colchicine 0.5mg 1 tan every hour until relief or diarrhea occurs. After acute phase is over, wait at least 4-6 weeks before initiating maintenance treatment.
Stop allopurinol during acute phase. Restart 4-6 weeks after resolved.

124

What is the maintenance medication for gout

Allopurinol (Zyloprim) daily for years to lifetime. Check CBC as it affects bone marrow.
Probenecid lowers uric acid
Colchicine has anti-inflammatory effects and can be used during acute phase with NSAIDs and for maintenance phase.

125

Can gout cause joint destruction

Yes

126

More common in males and HLA-B27+. Average age of onset is the early 20s. Chronic inflammatory disorder that affects mainly the spinal region and the sacroiliac joint. Some other joints affected are the shoulders and hips.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

127

Young adult male complains of a chronic case of back pain for more than three months that is worse in the upper back. Joint pain keeps him awake at night. Associated with generalized symptoms like low-grade fever and fatigue. May have chest pain with respiration. Long-term stiffness that improves with activity. Some have buttocks pain.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

128

Objective findings include marked loss of range of motion of the spine such as forward bending, rotation, and lateral bending. Decreased respiratory excursion down to less than 2.5 cm. Some have lordosis. Uveitis: complains of Eye irritation, photosensitivity, and Eye pain. Scleral injection and blurred vision. Refer to opthalmologist ASAP to be treated with steroids.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

129

What labs are ordered for ankylosing Spondylitis

Sedimentation rate and see reactive proteins which will be slightly elevated. RF will be negative. Spinal radiograph will show classic bamboo sign.

130

What is the treatment plan for ankylosing spondylitis

Referral to rheumatologist. Buy mattress with good support. Postural training.
First line treatment is NSAIDs
If high risk of bleeding, prescribe PPI with NSAIDs or COX-2 inhibitors (celecoxib or Celebrex)
For severe treatment DMARDs, biologics, and spinal fusion

131

What are complications of Ankylosing Spondylitis

Anterior uveitis
Aoritis (inflammation of the aorta)
Fusing of the spine with significant loss of range of motion. Spinal stenosis.

132

Patient greater than 50 years old with a new onset of back pain what should be ruled out

Cancer

133

If a patient presents with symptoms of spinal stenosis what must be ruled out

Ankylosing Spondylitis

134

What is the best imaging study for diagnosing a herniated disc

MRI

135

Acute pressure on a sacral nerve root results in inflammatory and ischemic changes to the nerve. Sacral nerves innovate pelvic structures such as the sphincters (anal and bladder). Considered a surgical emergency. Needs decompression. Referred to ED.

Cauda Equina syndrome

136

Bowel incontinence, bladder incontinence, & saddle anesthesia are all signs of

Cauda Equina Syndrome

137

Common cause of shoulder pain. Also called cuff tendinitis.

Supraspinatus Tendonitis

138

What test is for impingement syndrome

Hawkins-Kennedy Test
Painful arc test

139

Which condition would be consistent with the patient that has a history of diabetes, history of immobilizing condition of the shoulder, and diminished shoulder range of motion

Adhesive capsulitis

140

Forearm muscles attach to the

Lateral epicondyle

141

How do you manage lateral epicondylitis or tennis elbow

Rest is very important. Keep joints moving. Ice/heat is helpful. NSAIDs. Steroid injections. Physical therapy. Isometric resistance or wrist extension.

142

How is epicondylitis treated

If chronic neuropathy, it can be treated with TCAs, gabapentin, phenytoin and pain medications.

143

What grade of ankle sprain is a minimally torn ligament, stable joint

Grade 1

144

What grade of ankle sprain is an incomplete tear painful weight bearing

Grade 2

145

What grade of ankle sprain is completely torn ligament, severe pain, swelling, tenderness.

Grade 3

146

How do you manage an ankle sprain

RICE for 2-3 days
Early mobility with splints, braces
Analgesics: acetaminophen, NSAIDs

147

What scale is used to determine whether a patient needs radiographs of an injured ankle in the emergency room

Ottawa rules of the ankle

148

What do you consider x-ray and referral for a grade 2 sprain

Yes

149

Twisting injury with the foot fixed. Degenerative tears in the middle/older adults, maybe as a result of minor trauma.

Meniscal tear

150

This condition is almost always secondary to trauma, swelling after injury, laxity of ligaments on exam.

Torn ligaments

151

What tests should you perform on a patient that presents with acute knee pain

Anterior drawer test, posterior drawer test, Lachman test, McMurray’s test

152

Patient complains of locking of the knee or knees. Some patients are unable to fully extend affected knee. Patient may limp. Complains of knee pain and difficulty walking and bending the knee. Some complain of joint line pain. Decreased range of motion.

Meniscus tear of the knees

153

What is the best imaging study for a torn meniscus

MRI. Referred to orthopedic specialist for repair.

154

A type of bursitis that is located behind the knee i.e. popliteal fossa. Sometimes when a joint is damaged and or inflamed, synovial fluid production increases, causing the bursa to enlarge. Bursae are the protective synovial sacs that are located on certain joints.

Ruptured Baker’s cyst or bursitis

155

Physically active patient complains of a ball like mass behind one knee that is soft and smooth. Pressure pain or asymptomatic. If cyst ruptures, will cause an inflammatory reaction resembling cellulitis on the surrounding area i.e. the calf such as redness, swelling, tenderness.

Ruptured Baker’s cyst

156

How do you diagnose a ruptured Baker’s cyst

Diagnosed by clinical presentation and history. MRI if diagnosis is uncertain. Rule out plain bursitis from bursitis with infection i.e. septic joint.

157

What is the treatment plan for a ruptured Baker’s cyst

RICE
NSAIDS
Large bursa can be drained with syringe, 18 gauge needle if causing pain. Synovial fluid is a clear golden color. If cloudy synovial fluid and red, swollen, and hot joint, order C& S to rule out septic joint infection.

158

Anterior uveitis is a complication of

Rheumatoid arthritis and ankle losing spondylitis

159

Does an x-ray of the knee show meniscal injury or any joint cartilage

No

160

What is the gold standard test for assessing joint damage

MRI

161

Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain greater than three months accompanied by fatigue, psych symptoms, and multiple somatic complaints. Ideology and pathophysiology are unknown. No evidence of tissue inflammation. Labs, and radiology are within normal limits. Physical exam is normal except for tenderness in nine pairs of specific fibromyalgia points on exam in the neck. ACR has diagnostic Criteria

Fibromyalgia

162

How do you treat fibromyalgia

Patient education, sleep hygiene, treat comorbid i.e. mood and sleep disorders, exercise: aerobic conditioning, stretching, strengthening, medications for pain: amitriptyline, duloxetine (cymbalta), pregabalin

163

Positive is point tenderness at heel

Plantar fasciitis

164

Positive MTP squeeze test

Morton’s neuroma

165

Associated with High purine diet

Gout

166

Nodes on the DIP joint secondary to arthritis

Heberden’s nodes

167

Positive Finkelstein test

DeQuervains tensosynovitis

168

Burning pain between third and fourth toes

Morton’s neuroma

169

Positive Tinel’s test and positive Phalen’s test

Carpal tunnel syndrome

170

Type of fracture secondary to a systemic disease

Pathologic fracture

171

Common cause of posterior knee pain

Baker’s cyst

172

Overuse injury of a bone

Stress fracture takes 4-6 weeks to heal

173

Dorsal thumb pain is a classic symptom

DeQuervains tensosynovitis

174

Injury to a bone that does not result in a fracture

Contusion

175

Injury to a muscle

Strain

176

Injury to a ligament

Sprain

177

Caused by deposition of urate crystals in joints

Gout

178

Nodes on PIP joints secondary to arthritis

Bouchnard’s nodes

179

Joint stiffness lasts less than 60 minutes usually

Osteoarthritis

180

RICE is the acronym for treatment for this

Sprain

181

Term that describes compression of the spinal cord

Cauda Equina Syndrome

182

Rupture of the biceps tendon

Popeyes disease

183

A 7 year old male presents with a painless with limp, antalgic gait, muscle spasm, mildly restricted hip abduction and internal rotation, proximal thigh atrophy, and slightly short stature. The most likely diagnosis is

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

184

What physical modalities recommended for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis provides the most effective long-term pain relief?

Exercise

185

Is osteo arthritis associated with chronic renal failure, long time anticonvulsant to use, and long-term steroid use

Yes

186

The most effective treatment for a noninfective bursitis includes

Rest, and intra-articular corticosteroid injection, and a concomitant oral NSAID

187

Radiographic evaluation of talipes equinovarus must be performed

While weight bearing

188

What disease process are Bouchard’s node’s most commonly associated with

Osteoarthritis

189

What is subluxation of the Radial Head

Nurses elbow

190

The complete resolution of symptoms of Osgood Schlatter disease through physiologic healing takes how long

12 to 24 month