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1

Which of the following statements is/are true about hormones?
A. They are chemical substances produced by the body
B. They are active in small amounts
C. They affect the function of a distant, nearby or source cell
D. AOTA

D

2

Which of the following hormones is/are an amino acid derivative?

A. epinephrine
B. GH
C. Cortisol
D. All of the above

A

3

Which of the following pairs of hormone and function is correctly paired?

A. Increase in metabolic rate and temp- ADH
B. Growth and dev’t- Glucagon
C. Maintenance of blood Ca2 Level- PTH
D. AOTA

C

4

The cell that receives the hormone in circulation is a

A. Receptor
B. Coupling domain
C. Target Cell
D. Source cell

C

5

Exocrine diseases are often due to a loss of hormone (i.e. hormone deficiency). Which of the following would cause an endocrine disease that mimicked a protein hormone deficiency without a deficiency in the levels of the circulating protein hormone?

A. Inactive prohomormone convertase
B. Defective exocytotic machinery
C. Failure in transport of blood proteins
D. Defective receptors
E. None of the above.

D

6

Hormones act through binding to a receptor. Which of the following hormones bind only to receptors located on the plasma membrane?

A. Thyroid hormone
B. Catecholamines
C. Estrogen
D. Progesterone
E. Vitamin D

B

7

Endocrine glands are organs dedicated to making hormones. Some organs produce hormones but have other important functions. An example of such hormone-producing organ that is not considered to be a dedicated endocrine gland is:

A. Adrenal
B. Thyroid
C. Liver
D. Pituitary
E. Parathyroid

C

8

The hypothalamus plays an important role in hypothalamic-pituitary-endocrine axes. The hypothalamus neuroendocrine cells secrete:

a. Tropic hormones
b. Steroid hormones
c. Releasing hormones
d. inhibitory hormones

C

9

the pituitary gland secretes

A. Tropic hormones
B. Steroid hormones
C. Releasing hormones
D. NOTA

A

10

A structure important to the regulation of circadian hormonal rhythms:

a. paraventricular nucleus
b. supraoptic nucleus
c. superior fornix
d. suprachiasmatic nucleus
e. arcuate nucleus

D

11

Each of the following hormone second messenger is generated via a G proten except

A. cAMP
B. Inositol triphosphate
C. Tyrosine kinase
D. Diacylglycerol

C

12

Hormone secretion via exocytosis involves each of the following except:

A. Rise in intracellular calcium
B. Hormone storage in secretory granules
C. Other products of the prohormone
D. Microtubular-microfilament system
E. Loss of nuclear material

E

13

17 yo girl still did not have 1st menstrual period (menarche) nor signs of puberty-related growth spurt, breast development, or pubic hair growth.. Her pediatrician suspects hypogonadism/delayed puberty. You would expect her to have:

a. Inc Estrogen
b. Inc FSH
c. Inc androgen
d. Inc TSH
e. Inc GH

C

14

The preprohormone preprovasopressin is synthesized in the

A. pars nervosa
B. median eminence
C. hypothalamic nuclei
D. pars distalis
E. infundibular stalk

C

15

Pituitary glycoproteins are heterodimers each consisting of a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit. Pituitary glycoproteins include:

a. TSH, GH, LH
b. hCG, TSH, LH
c. prolactin, GH, ACTH
d. FSH, LH, TSH
e. FSH, LH, prolactin

D

16

Hypothalamic releasing hormones are secreted from neuroendocrine neurons at the a. median eminence

b. pars distalis
c. paraventricular nucleus
d. pars nervosa
e. infundibular stalk

A

17

Example of short-looped feedback

a. GH inhibition of GHRH
b. cortisol inhibition of ACTH
c. FSH inhibition of estrogen
d. somatostatin inhibition of TSH

A

18

The major target of growth hormone, which determines the circulating levels of IGF-1, is

A. pituitary gland
B. muscle
C. liver
D. kidney
E. intestine

C

19

The pituitary hormone under predominantly inhibitory control by the hypothalamus:

a. growth hormone
b. TSH
c. somatostatin
d. prolactin
e. ACTH

D

20

the following are parts of your adenohypophysis except:

a. anterior lobe
b. pars intermedia
c. pars tuberalis
d. median eminence

D

21

Which effects of GH is/are indicated by IGF-1?

A. Increased organ size.
B. Linear growth
C. Increase cell size and number.
D. AOTA.

D

22

Growth hormone secretion is stimulated by

A. sleep
B. Hyperglycemia
C. Both
D. neither

A

23

The ff are functions of prolactin except:

a. promotes mammary gland development
b. promotes lactogenesis
c. promotes milk ejection
d. none of d above

C

24

Prolactin secretion is stimulated by:

A. Nursing
B. Pregnancy
C. Estrogen
D. All of the above

D

25

What is a structural homologue of TSH?

A. HCG
B. FSH
C. LH
D. AOTA

D

26

During fasting, what is the first energy store to be utilized for blood glucose?

a. Muscle glycogen
b. Ketone bodies
c. Muscle protein
d. Fat bodies
e. Hepatic glycogen

E

27

The most important stimulus for insulin secretion:

a) Glucose
b) Glucagon
c) Adrenergic stimulation
d) Cholinergic stimulation
e) Amino acid

E

28

Insulin receptors belong to which family of receptors?

a) Tyrosine kinase receptor
b) Steroid receptor
c) Cytokine receptor
d) G protein-coupled receptor
e) LDL receptor

A

29

Primary target of insulin:

a) Glucokinase
b) Acetyl CoA carboxylase
c) Uncoupling proteins
d) Fatty acid synthase
e) GLUT4

E

30

First action of secreted insulin:

a) Activate lipoprotein lipase
b) Inhibit glucagon secretion
c) Stimulate hepatic glycolysis
d) Mobilize GLUT4 into myocellular membrane
e) Inhibit appetite

D

31

Type 1 diabetes (juvenile-onset) suspected by parents on their child because of change in appearance or behavior.

a) Sudden increase in muscle mass
b) Darkening skin
c) Increased thirst and frequency of urination
d) Puffiness around face
e) Early pubertal growth spurt

C

32

Which is found in the pancreatic islets?

a) Insulin-secreting alpha cells
b) Glucagon-secreting beta cells
c) Gastrin-secreting delta cells
d) Pancreatic polypeptide-secreting F cells

D

33

Which of the following steps occur in the process of insulin secretion?

a) Opening of potassium channels
b) Closure of calcium channels
c) Exocytosis of secretory granules
d) AOTA

C

34

Increase insulin causes:

a) Decrease in plasma glucose
b) Decrease in amino acid
c) Decrease in ketone bodies
d) AOTA

D

35

The following stimulate insulin secretion except

A. decrease in blood glucose
B. GI hormones
C. acetylcholine
D. Glucagon

A

36

Cortisol can bind to both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. In the distal nephrons, the binding of cortisol to mineraloid receptors is inhibited by:

a) Competitive inhibition of aldosterone
b) Glucoronide conjugation
c) Conversion to cortisone
d) Rapid excretion
e) Binding to heat shock chaperone protein

C

37

A patient has been receiving immunosuppressive doses of cortisol for six months. The plasma level of ACTH is expected to be:

a. increased
b. decreased
c. stable (no change)
d. unpredictable

B

38

A decrease in ACTH levels leads to

a. decrease in cortisol levels
b. decrease in adrenomedullary epinephrine secretion
c. decrease in hepatic protein synthesis
d. AOTA

A

39

The primary neuroendocrine inhibitor of prolactin secretion is

a. dopamine
b. TRH
c. somatostatin
d. AOTA

A

40

GH stimulates the liver to produce

a. somatomedin
b. somatotropin
c. somatostatin
d. AOTA

A

41

ACTH stimulates the adrenal gland to secrete

a. cortisol
b. aldosterone
c. androgen
d. AOTA

D

42

TSH is structurally homologous to

a. LH
b. FSH
c. HCG
d. AOTA

D

43

Hormone which decreases plasma glucose

a. insulin
b. glucagon
c. cortisol
d. epinephrine

A

44

Hormone which increases plasma glucose levels

a. glucagon
b. cortisol
c. epinephrine
d. AOTA

D

45

Hormone/s which increase/s following blood loss

a. arginine vasopressin or ADH
b. aldosterone
c. cortisol
d. AOTA

D

46

Biological effects of glucagon

a. stimulate gluconeogenesis
b. stimulate glycogenesis
c. stimulate glucose uptake
d. stimulate protein synthesis

A

47

A parent with an aldosterone producing adenoma (hyperaldosteronism ) may present with

a. hypokalemia
b. hyperkalemia
c. hyponatremia
d. hypotension

A

48

A patient with hypercortisolemia may present with

a. hyperglycemia
b. hypertension
c. visceral obesity
d. AOTA

D

49

Which among the following is/are true?

a. 50% of calcium serum is ionized
b. 40% of calcium serum is complexed
c. 10% of serum calcium is protein bound
d. AOTA

A

50

Which of the following statements about Ca is true?

a. better to measure ionized rather than total Ca because the former is the physiologically active form
b. Ca is transported via primary and secondary processes out of the cell
c. metabolic alkalosis increases ca binding to protein
d. AOTA

D

51

Which of the following is lined by small Sertoli cells?

A. Vas deferens
B. Tubuli recti
C. Prostate
D. Seminal vesicle

B

52

If the serum albumin is 3.0, and the serum Ca2+ is 8.0, what is the corrected calcium concentration?

A. 11.2
B. 10.4
C. 9.6
D. 8.8

D

53

Which of the following statements is true about osteocytic osteolysis?

A. Osteoblast plays a major role in the process
B. Canaliculi are essential for the process to take place
C. This process result in the transport of calcium but not phosphorus from the osteocyte to surface osteoclast
D. Process is stimulated by a drop in PTH

B

54

Which of the following describes osteoblasts?

A. They arise from hematopoietic stem cells
B. They respond to drops in plasma glycogen
C. Called interior osteocytes after secreting bone
D. Secrete hydroxyproline

D

55

Which of the following hormones inhibit bone formation?

A. Androgens
B. Cortisol
C. Thyroid hormone
D. Estrogen

B

56

Which of the following products are increased during bone formation?

A. Collagen
B. Osteocalcin
C. Osteonectin
D. All of the above

D

57

In patients with iodine deficiency, what would be the expected thyroid iodine uptake?

A. Increased
B. Decreased
C. Unchanged
D. Cannot be predicted

A

58

Manifestations of iodine deficiency include the following EXCEPT:

A. Fetal loss
B. Accelerated bone growth
C. Presence of a goiter
D. Mental retardation

B

59

Which of the following hormones is responsible for iodine oxidation after trapping?

A. Monoiodinase
B. Aromatase
C. Perioxidase
D. 5’-alpha reductase

C

60

Which of the following statements is/are TRUE about reverse T3?

A. It has a calorigenic potential ½ that of T3
B. It results from the deiodination of T4 by 5’ aromatase
C. It is secreted in greater proportions during stress and overwhelming infection
D. All of the above statements are true

C

61

Which of the following statements is/are true about thyroid binding globulins?

A. It serves as a reservoir of thyroid hormone
B. Binding to it results in increase in urine clearance of the hormone
C. It is increased in cases of chronic liver and kidney disease
D. All of the above

A

62

The following are direct and indirect effects of thyroxine EXCEPT

A. Increased cardiac contractility
B. Increased heart rate
C. Increased peripheral vascular resistance
D. Decreased diastolic blood pressure

C

63

You wanted to lose weight so you decided to take thyroxine pills. You indeed lost 5 pounds! What would be the expected complications however if you decided to continue this weight loss regimen for 5 years?

A. Cardiac arrhythmias
B. Osteoporosis
C. Infertility
D. All of the above

D

64

All of the following are effects of hyperthyroidism
EXCEPT:

A. Palpitations
B. Thin skin
C. Heat intolerance
D. Weight gain

D

65

Which of the following is true of Ca in the body?

A. The physiologically active form of calcium is in ionized form.
B. A fraction of the total calcium in the body is complexed to a compound.
C. Binding of calcium to albumin is pHdependent.
D. All of the above are true.

D

66

Decreases calcium and phosphate absorption

a. calcitonin
b. PTH
c. PTH rp
d. vitamin D
e. none of the above

A

67

Increases serum Ca levels in patients with malignancies

a. calcitonin
b. PTH
c. PTH rp
d. vitamin D
e. none of the above

B

68

Chronic renal failure will cause increase in this
hormone

a. calcitonin
b. PTH
c. PTH rp
d. vitamin D
e. none of the above

B

69

Increases Ca levels and decreases phosphate
reabsorption

a. calcitonin
b. PTH
c. PTH rp
d. vitamin D
e. none of the above

C

70

Secreted from the follicular cell into lumen

a. calcitonin
b. PTH
c. PTH rp
d. vitamin D
e. none of the above

B

71

15% of the thyroid hormone in the plasma is bound to this molecule

a. transthyretin
b. thyroid binding globulin
c. albumin
d. NOTA

A

72

Majority of the thyroid hormone is bound to this protein

a. transthyretin
b. thyroid binding globulin
c. albumin
d. NOTA

B

73

Helps osteoclast in attaching to bone during resorption

a. transthyretin
b. integrin
c. albumin
d. NOTA

D

74

True of the endocrine gland, except:

a. consist of secretory granule cells arranged in cords, column and follicles
b. generally arises from epithelial origin
c. highly vascularized with sinusoids and fenestrated capillaries
d. contain ducts that open into the connective
tissue

D

75

True of the hypophyseoportal system

a. included the primary capillary plexus
b. carries releasing hormones to the pars distalis
c. includes secondary capillary plexus
d. picks up pituitary hormones and delivers them
to the general circulation
e. AOTA

E

76

True of the pituitary acidophils

a. takes up anilene blue stain easily
b. secretes prolactin
c. abundant in the posterolateral part of the pars intermedia
d. possess the smallest cytoplasmic granules
e. AOTA

B

77

Chromaffin cells have these characteristics, except

a. minor cell type in the adrenal medulla
b. derived from the neural crest cells
c. secrete acetylcholine
d. receive parasympathetic innervation
e. AOTA

D

78

Where adrenal medullary capillaries/ blood vessels directly come from what vessels

a. cortical and medullary veins
b. cortical and medullary arteries
c. superior and inferior renal arteries
d. NOTA

B

79

The following is true of brain sand:

a. present in dec pineal
b. acidophilic
c. decreases with age
d. use by radiologist as marker
e. None of the above

E

80

The thyroid and parathyroid glands are derived
from the:

a. ectoderm
b. endoderm
c. mesoderm
d. ectoderm and mesoderm
e. none of the above

B

81

Derived from the nasal ectoderm:

a. adenohypophysis
b. neurohypophysis
c. both
d. neither

B

82

Stains darker in routine stain:

a. adenohypophysis
b. neurohypophysis
c. Rathke's pouch
d. neither

A

83

Originates from oral ectoderm:

a. adenohypophysis
b. neurohypophysis
c. both
d. neither

A

84

Contains herring bodies:

a. adenohypophysis
b. neurohypophysis
c. both
d. neither

B

85

Hormone secretion regulated by hypothalamus:

a. adenohypophysis
b. neurohypophysis
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b

C