OS 206 E3 Samplex 2016 & 2017 Flashcards Preview

[OS 206] 3rd Exam > OS 206 E3 Samplex 2016 & 2017 > Flashcards

Flashcards in OS 206 E3 Samplex 2016 & 2017 Deck (46)
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1

The most basic structure of the kidney is found mostly in:

A. Renal Capsule
B. Renal Cortex
C. Renal Column
D. Renal Pyramid
E. Renal Pelvis

B

2

At what level is are the kidneys located?

A. T 11 to L4
B. T12 to L5
C. T11 to L3
D. L1 to L5

C

3

Which is false?

A. On the frontal plane, the renal axis is directed downward and outward.
B. The kidneys lie parallel to the lateral borders of the psoas muscles on either side.
C. On the lateral plane, the renal axis is directed downward and anteriorly.
D. On the lateral plane, the renal lower pole is 2-3 cm more posterior than the upper pole.

D

4

Most dominant force in determining GFR

A. tubular fluid oncotic pressure
B. plasma or capillary oncotic pressure
C. glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure
D. Bowman’s capsule hydrostatic pressure

C

5

The bulk of calcium reabsorption happens in the

A. Proximal tubule
B. Thick ascending limb of loop of Henle
C. Distal convoluted tubule
D. Collecting tubule

A

6

The bulk of magnesium reabsorption occurs in the

A. Proximal tubule
B. Distal convoluted tubule
C. Thick ascending limb of loop of Henle
D. Collecting tubule

C

7

All are functions of the kidney except

A. Excretion of metabolic wastes
B. Synthesis of glucose using amino acids during fasting
C. Regulation of electrolyte balance
D. Secretion of ADH

D

8

These control mechanisms are activated seconds after change in blood pressure except

A. RAAS
B. baroreceptor
C. chemoreceptor
D. CNS ischemic response

A

9

Which anatomical structure is not usually seen in a plain x-ray of the abdomen?

a. stomach
b. psoas
c. ureter
d. bladder

C

10

In a normal adult, the kidneys usually lie along the length of which vertebral body?

a. T11-L3
b. T9-T12
c. L1-L4
d. T10-L1

A

11

In the proximal convuluted tubule, penicillin is

a. Actively secreted into tubule
b. Actively reabsorbed from tubule
c. Passively reabsorbed from tubule
d. Metabolized by tubule cells

A

12

In which portion of the ureter stones would tend to lodge and cause obstruction

a. Uterovesical junction
b. Uteropelvic junction
c. Crossing over iliac
d. Crossing over psoas

A

13

All may be found in IVP of kidney with hydronephrosis EXCEPT

a. Flattening of concavity of calyx
b. Reversal of convexity of renal papilla
c. Atrophy of renal pelvis
d. Enlarged calyx

C

14

Which of the ff. does not describe perirenal fascia?

a. Encloses perirenal fat
b. Known as Gerota’s fascia
c. Anchors kidney to surrounding structures and wall of abdomen
d. Innermost of 3 tissue layers surrounding the kidneys

D

15

What is true of the efferent arteriole

a. It branches into the glomerular capillary
b. It contains mechanoreceptors sensitive to BP
c. It branches into the peritubular capillary
d. It absorbs solutes from intestinal fluid

C

16

Majority of the stones of the urinary tract can be visualized radiographically. This is because of the fact that these stones are made of

a. Uric acid crystals
b. Calcium oxalates
c. Magnesium crystals
d. A&B
e. A,B&C

B

17

Which correctly describes the kidney

a. It is located in the zone 1 of the retroperitoneum
b. It is almost parallel to the vertebral column
c. It is primarily a retroperitoneal organ
d. It is fixed in place by renal vessels and renal fascia
e. It measure 10x1x5 cm

C

18

The outline to the renal shadows are visible on the plain film of abdomen because of:

a. Low density of peri-renal fat capsule
b. Uptake of contrast by the kidney
c. Low soft tissue density of the psoas
d. Surrounding bowel gas

A

19

A patient needs to remove one of his kidneys. During surgery the spleen is carefully lifted. What abdominal organ will be injured?

a. Pancreas
b. Spleen
c. Ovary
d. Stomach
e. Left colic flexure

C

20

True of ureters

a. Serosal layer derived from overlying mesentery derivatives
b. 3 muscle layers propel urine from kidney to bladder
c. transitional epithelium
d. reabsorption of small portion of filtrate is coursed through lymphatics
e. AOTA

E

21

Highest oncotic pressure

a. Efferent arteriole
b. Afferent arteriole
c. Midway in glomerular capillary
d. Renal artery

A

22

What happens to the small amount of albumin that is filtered into the tubular lumen

a. It is excreted unchanged
b. It is reabsorbed via channels in the proximal tubule and is returned to systemic circulation via peritubular capillaries
c. It is taken up via endocytosis and is broken down by lysozyme inside the cell. Amino acids are then reabsorbed
d. Filtered proteinases break down albumin in the lumen, amino acids are reabsorbed

C

23

Primary function of active form of vitamin D

a. Increase absorption of Ca2+ in the intestines
b. Increase renal absorption of Ca2+
c. Increase renal absorption of phosphate
d. Mobilize Ca2+ stored in the bone

A

24

The term “autoregulation” is preferred because

a. Does not need arterial blood to function
b. Kidney contains baroreceptor
c. Maintains GFR in a wide range of blood pressure
d. Does not need symphathetic nerves to function

C

25

All of the following solutes are reabsorbed via secondary active transport in the proximal tubule except:

a. amino acid
b. phosphate
c. sulfate
d. H+

D

26

Glomerulotubular refers to

a. Maintaining GFR constant in the face of changes of MAP
b. Increase in GFR in response to an increase in RBF
c. Increase in tubulo reabsorption in response to an increase filter load
d. AOTA

D

27

Which of the following is false

a. Fluid in int. contains hyperosmotic NaCl
b. H2O reabsorbed in last segment of DCT
c. Urea enters DLH at slower rate than efflux of NaCl
d. Osmotically abstracts H2O from ALH

D

28

Potassium secretion is stimulated by

a. Aldosterone
b. Anti-diuretic hormone
c. Angiotensin II
d. Angiotensin I

A

29

Major ICF cation

a. Na+
b. K+
c. H+
d. Ca2+

B

30

In a healthy individual, which of the following fluids normally has the highest pH? (most alkaline)

a. Systemic arterial blood plasma
b. Systemic venous blood plasma
c. Urine
d. AOTA, since pH is normally same for all

A

31

Volume expansion is controlled by

a. Intrarenal hydrostatic pressure
b. Intrarenal oncotic pressure
c. Renal sympathetic nerve
d. RAAS

D

32

Volume contraction may be associated with which of the following:

a. Hyperosmolarity
b. Isoosmolarity
c. Hypoosmolarity
d. AOTA

D

33

At which time of the day is the basal rate of gastric acid secretion the highest?

a. Night
b. Morning
c. Afternoon
d. Noon

B

34

An increase in renin would

a. Increase in Na excretion & increase in K+ excretion
b. Increase in Na excretione & decrease in K+ excretion
c. Decrease in Na excretion & increase K+ excretion
d. Decrease in Na excretion & decrease in K+ excretion

C

35

The patient’s osmolarity is 380. What is causing the osmolal gap?

a. Alcohol
b. Sodium
c. Glucose
d. Urea

A

36

Ammonia excreted in urine comes mainly from the metabolism of:

a. Glycine
b. Glutamine
c. Leucine
d. Alanine

C

37

Effect of angiotensin II

a. Inhibit thirst mechanism
b. Inhibit ADH
c. Stimulate aldosterone
d. Stimulate ANP

C

38

Aldosterone effects:

a. Increase number of open Na+ & K+ channels at apical membrane
b. Increase rate of Na+-K+ ATPase pump
c. Both
d. Neither

C

39

The glucose plasma concentration at which urine starts testing positive for glucose

a. Tm
b. Renal threshold for glucose
c. Absorptive threshold
d. Splay

B

40

Viral diarrhea with water replaced:

a. Isotonic expansion
b. Hypotonic contraction
c. Hypotonic expansion
d. Isotonic contraction

C

41

Bladder is full and you are 20m away from the toilet. what is activated?

a. Pelvic nerve inhibition
b. Cortical stimulation
c. Rostral pons
d. Pudendal nerve

B

42

Richly folded epithelium and spongy tissue within the submucosa contribute to this phenomenon that promotes continence among females?

a. Reflex resting pressure of urethra
b. Urethrovesical angulation
c. Intrapelvic position of urethra
d. Urethral seal effect

D

43

Patient's blood has pH 7.20, [HCO3-] ~17, PCO2=72. If the serum anion gap is normal and if urine anion gap is negative, there is a problem in which structure/s?

a. Glomerular basement membrane
b. Proximal cells
c. Distal cells
d. Collecting duct cells

D

44

Bladder compliance is essential because

a. Allows slow rise in detrusor pressure as volume rises
b. Maintains pressure despite increase in volume
c. Allows complete emptying of bladder during voiding
d. Prevents reflux of urine to the ureter

A

45

In decreased blood pH, to determine if bicarbonate loss is through diarrhea and not impaired kidney function, one must test for increased levels of which of the following in the urine?

a. HCO3-
b. H+
c. NH4+
d. H2PO3-

A

46

Which is an abnormal finding in urinalysis?

a. specific gravity of 1.020
b. protein
c. amorphous crystal
d. pH 6.0

B