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NBDE II Board Busters > OSHA > Flashcards

Flashcards in OSHA Deck (52):
1

4 major fields of behavior

1. personal social - environment, work, play, society
2. motor - starting to access maturity
3. language
4. adapative - use of motor capacity and solutions to practical behavior

2

7 steps in education

1. recognize needs
3. express needs
3. stimulate motivation
4. set goals
5. act to achieve goals
6. reinforce learning
7. evaluate results

3

classical conditioning (Pavlovian or respondant)

associate one stimulus with another

4

operant conditioning

consequences of a behavior is a stimulus that can affect future behavior, rewarded or punished

4 types - positive and negative reinforcement, omission, punishment

5

behavior shaping (successive approximation)

type of operant conditioning, provide reinforcement for progressively closre approx. of final desired behavior

"stimulus response" (SR) theory

6

aversion conditioning

punishment to suppress bad behavior

ex. hand over mouth technique (HOME)

7

observational learning (modeling or behavior shaping)

acquisition of behavior by observation, and performance

8

systemic desensitization

eliminate anxiety assoc. with phobias

9

4 types of aggression

1. constructive - act of self-assertiveness for self protection
2. destructive - hostility unnecessary for protection
3. inward - against oneself
4. aggressive personality - irritable, tantrums, in response to frustation

10

health belief model

ppl will act to prevent disease only when they believe they are susceptible to disease

11

OSHA

protects WORKERS from hazards in a work place

concerned with regulated WASTE in dental office

12

hazardous waste

poisonous waste

infectious waste

-cause harm or injury to environment

-can cause poisonous effect

-can cause disease

13

OHSA bloodborne pathogens standard rule on uniforms

-uniforms laundered on site or off site NOT home

14

what is the most infectious target of standard universal blood precautions?

what is the most infectious bloodborne pathogen?

HIV

HBV

15

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

-greatest occupational healthcare worker risk for bloodborne infxn
-employers must offer free vaccine
-infxn usually by: sex, prenatal transfer, percutaneous inoculation

16

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)

-transmitted by blood in needle sticks, blood transfusion, drug addicts

17

most common dental materials deemed hazardous by OSHA

mercury -> scrap with sulfide solution
nitrous oxide -> max exposure is 1000 ppm
chemicals to develop film

18

medical records must be maintained for _ yrs

30

19

who regulates handpieces and recommends sterilization procedures to the CDC?

FDA

20

who regulates waste transportation from the office?

EPA

21

CDC high risk groups incl

IV druggies, homosexual/bisexual males, ppl getting transfusions, healthcare workers who can contact body fluids

22

quality assessment vs assurance

assessment is - does it meet standards?
assurance involves - structure, process, outcome, measures changes

23

how are sensitivity and specificity related?

inversely proportional

24

sensitivity measures

proportion of ppl with a disease correctly identified by a positive test

= TP/TP + FN

25

specificity is

ability of test to classify health

= TN/TN + FP

26

prevalence

# of old cases in a population at a specific period time

expressed as % of population

27

incidence

# of new cases at a certain time

expressed as RATE

28

child abuse most involves what age group

newborns up to 3 yrs

29

most popular managed care payment moethod is

capitation

30

DMFT - decayed missing filled teeth

or DMFS

irreversible index, permanent teeth
-best caries index for caries susceptibility

31

DEFT - decayed extracted filled teeth

-for primary dentition

32

gingival index (GI)

reversible, based on color, consistency, bop
-gingivitis often scored with Loe & Sillness (based on surfaces and inflammation, bleeding)
-PMA (papillary, marginal, attached) gingiva index to record prevalence and severity of gingivitis in school kids

33

periodontal index (PI)

-reversible
-assess prevalence of perio disease

34

plaque index of Silness and Loe

reversible
-assess THICKNESS of plaque at gingival margin

35

what % kids have inflammatory perio disease by 15?

80-90

localized acute gingivitis is most common

36

vital stats

1. mortality (death rate) - # deaths caused by a disease
2. morbidity - incidence of disease in a given population
3. natality (birth rate)
4. birth death ratio (vital index) - indicates population growth, stability, rdxn
5. crude death rate

37

randomized study

all subjects have equal chance of being either study or control group

38

bactericidal

vs bacteriostatic

kills bacteria

static inhibits metabolism and replication

39

sanitation

antimicrobial tx, lowers total microbial load

40

sterilization

killing or removing all microorganisms, complete destruction of all forms oc microbial life incl. spores

cell death occurs cause of heat

41

rapid heat transfer sterilization

375 F (191C) for 12 min for wrapped
fast, dry heat

42

dry heat sterilization

320 F(120 C) 2hrs, or 340F (170C) 1 hr

causes COAGULATION of proteins

43

autoclave (moist heat or saturated steam)

250F (121 C) 15-20 min

denatures high protein containing bacteria

44

unsaturated chemical vapor sterilization

270 F(132C) 20-40 min

instead of distilled water, uses soln oc alcohol, formaldehyde, ketone, acetone to produce vapor

requires greater temp and pressure than autoclave

does not RUST or corrode metals

45

glutaraldehyde 2%

alkalizing agent, 10 hrs to kill
pros - chemical sterilant, use on heat sensitive materials
cons - allergenic, toxic to tissues, time

46

ethylene oxide gas

for heat sensitive materials

alkylates proteins and nucleic acid

toxic

47

antiseptics

safe to external body, can be applied on living tissue

ex. chlorhexidine gluconate

alcohol is most widely used (isopropyl in hospitals)

48

most effective skin antiseptic that acts as an oxidizing agent, irreversibly combines with proteins

iodine

49

disinfection

reduce numbers or inhibit growth so it's not a threat of disease

for inanimate surfaces

50

__ microorganism is the marker for intermediate surface disinfection

mycobacterium tuberculosis
(also target for pasterization)

51

irritation dermatitis

most common form of adverse epithelial rxn for healthcare professionals

20-30%

52

HIV pts are protected under the

americans with disabilities act