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Flashcards in OSPE Deck (17)
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What is the additive and intended purpose for the red vacutainer?

Additive: Clot activator

Intended Purpose: Serology/Immunology


What is the additive and intended purpose for the pink vacutainer?

Additive: Clot activator

Intended Purpose: Crossmatch Testing


What is the additive and intended purpose for the green vacutainer?

Additive : Lithium Heparin

Intended Purpose : Clinical Chemistry


What is the additive and intended purpose for the purple vacutainer?

Additive: Potassium EDTA

Intended purpose: Haematology


What is the additive and intended purpose for the light blue vacutainer?

Additive: Sodium Citrate

Intended Purpose: Coagulation


What is the additive and intended purpose for the grey vacutainer?

Additive: Sodium Fluoride

Intended Purpose: Glucose


What is the correct tube colour for clot actvator?

Dark Blue


What would you do if you sustained a needlestick injury?

  1. Encourage free bleeding, do not suck the wound
  2. Thoroughly wash the area with soap and running water
  3. Cover with a waterproof dressing
  4. Report injuries to the manager (and occupational health provider)
  5. Seek advide promptly from occupational health


How would you deal with a blood spillage?


  1. Warn others of hazard
  2. Wear appropriate PPE
  3. Apply lab bleach / germicide as directed
  4. Use paper towels
  5. Dispose of paper towels in clinical waste


More specific guidance:

1. Prepare all items required to manage the spillage.

2. Wear PPE (page 7)

3. Apply chlorine releasing granules as per manufacturer’s instructions or place disposable paper towels (or other similar item) over spillage to absorb and contain it. Discard towels into waste. Cover area with paper towels and gently pour a freshly prepared 10,000ppm solution of hypochlorite e.g. diluted household bleach or Milton according to manufactures instructions

4. Follow manufactures instructions or leave for 3 minutes.

5. Use disposable towels to clear the area and discard into the waste.

6. Dry or allow to air dry




1. Wash area with general purpose detergent and warm water then dry

2. Discard disposables into waste including PPE

3. Wash hands



Why is informed consent important?

  • Require peer reviewed, professional/ethical approach, ensuring experimental process is voluntary
  • Volunteers must understand the risks and benefits of experimental procedures
  • Volunteers should understand that there may be no benefit to themselves
  • Volunteers must be free to withdraw at any time
  • Volunteers must know how data about them will be used and stored



What are normal blood values?

pCO2 = 40 mmHg

HCO3 = 24mmol/l (> 6.0kPa = acidosis, < 4.7 kPa alkalosis)

pH = 7.4


What are normal urine values?

  • Osmolality = ~1000 mOsm/l


  • pH = ~6.0 (varies though!)


What are causes of metabolic acidosis?

Normal anion gap:

- GI bicarbonate loss (diarrhoea, fistula)
- Addisons

 - Ammonium chloride injection


Raised anion gap:

- Lactate from shock or hypoxia

- Ketones: DKA, alcohol

- Urate - renal failure


What are causes of metabolic alkalosis?

Ususally due to renal or GI problems




Primary hyperaldosteronism





What are the causes of respiratory Acidosis?



Pulmonary oedema

Sedative drugs


What are the casues of respiratory alkalosis?

Anxiety - hyperventilation

Hypoxia causing subsequent hyperventilation:

- PE

- High Altitude

- CNS stimulation: stroke, subarachnoid, haemorrhage, encephalitis

- Pregnancy