Osteology of Pelvis and Gluteal Region Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Osteology of Pelvis and Gluteal Region Deck (57):
1

Acetabulum

Hip bone
- Cup shaped depression articulates with head of femur

2

Acetabular fossa

Non-articular fossa

3

Lunate surface

Peripheral acetabulum is articular portion

4

Acetabular notch

- The acetabular notch is a deep notch in the acetabulum of the hip bone. - Continuous with the circular non-articular depression (acetabular fossa) at the bottom of the cavity
- Contains a mass of fat and allows passage of acetabular ligament, nutreint vessels and nerves
- The margins of the notch serve as the attachment for the ligament of the head of the femur

5

Two portions of ilium

- Wing (ala) of ileum
- Body of ileum

6

External surface of wing

AKA dorsum
- Posterior gluteal line
- Anterior gluteal line
- Inferior gluteal line

7

Posterior gluteal line

- Shortest line
- Gluteus maximus takes its origin posterior to the posterior gluteal line

8

Anterior gluteal line

- Longest line
- Gluteus medius originates between the posterior and anterior gluteal lines

9

Inferior gluteal line

- Least distinct line
- Gluteus minimus originates between the anterior and inferior gluteal line

10

What originates between the inferior gluteal line and the margin of the acetabulum?

Rectus femoris

11

Internal surface of wing of ilium

- Superior border = iliac crest
- Inferior border = arcuate line
- Anterior border = ASIS and AIIS
- Posterior border = PSIS
- Other features = iliac fossa, sacroiliac joint, iliac tuberosity

12

Iliac crest

- Anterior point = ASIS
- Posterior point = PSIS
- External lip is the attachment for fascia lata and tensor fascia lata
- Internal lip is the attachent for iliac fascia and iliacus muscle

13

Inferior border of internal surface of ilium

Arcuate line

14

Anterior border of wing of ilium

- ASIS
- AIIS

There is a notch between the two spines

15

Attachments to ASIS

"SITI"
- S = sartorius m.
- I = iliacus m.
- T = tensor fascia latae m.
- I = inguinal ligament

16

Attachments to AIIS

"ISP" - Is St. Paul
- I = iliofemoral ligament
- S = straight head of rectus femoris
- P = portion of iliacus m.

There is a groove medial to the AIIS for psoas major and iliacus muscles to pass

17

Iliopectineal eminence

- Site of fusion between pubis and ilium
- Located medial to groove for iliopsoas

18

PSIS

- Posterior border of ilium
- Attachment for sacroiliac ligament
- S for "See" - See SITI Is St. Paul

There is also a PIIS

19

Iliac fossa

Concave area
o Nutrient foramen in its center
o Iliacus m. inserts here

20

Sacroiliac joint

o Posterior to iliac fossa
o Articulation between sacrum and ilium

21

Iliac tuberosity

Attachment sacroiliac ligaments
o Posterior to articular area

22

Body of ilium

External Surface
o Forms portion acetabulum

Internal Surface
o Part wall bony pelvis
o Obturator internus takes origin here

23

General ilium notes

• No ramus of ilium
• Body of ilium joins lateral projection of superior ramus of pubis at the acetabulum
• The body and wing are sparated - externally by the margin of the acetabulum and internally by the arcuate line

24

Greater sciatic notch

o Both ischium and ilium contribute to the greater sciatic notch
o Greater sciatic notch begins proximally inferior to PIIS
o Greater sciatic notch ends distally as the ischial spine

25

Ischium

• Ischium possesses a single ramus
• Body of ischium joins lateral projection of superior ramus of pubis at the acetabulum
• Ischium is the strongest, most inferior hip bone
- Two parts: body of ischium, ischial ramus

26

Body of ischium

External surface
- Forms part of acetabular fossa, including part of the lunate surface
- Includes ischial spine and ischial tuberosity

27

Ischial spine

Separates greater and lesser sciatic notches

Attachments: “SaraSota”
o Sacrospinalis ligament
o Superior gemellus muscle

28

Ischial tuberosity

Attachments
o Quadratus femoris - lateral tuberosity teardrop-shaped facet
o Inferior gemellus - superomedial tuberosity

Quadrilateral portion (upper part)
o Oblique line – separates hamstring origins
o Semimebranosus - upper lateral attachment
o Long head biceps femoris & semitendinosus - lower medial attachment

Triangular portion (lower region)
- Adductor magnus
- Sacrotuberous ligament

29

Internal surface of body of ischium

Obturator internus attaches here

30

Ischial ramus

o Directed anteriorly from ischial tuberosity
o Joins inferior pubic ramus

Muscles attach on external surface, internal surface, lateral border and medial border

31

External surface attachments

- Adductor magnus
- Obturator externus

32

Internal surface attachments

- Obturator internus

33

Lateral border attachments

- Sharp/thin
- Forms margin obturator foramen

34

Medial border attachments

- Perineum attachments

35

Pubis

- Body
- Superior rami
- Inferior rami

36

Body of pubis attachments

o Gracilis
o Adductor longus
o Adductor brevis

37

Superior rami

Medial to lateral portion
- Pubic crest - most medial
- Pubic tubercle - lateral to pubic crest, inguinal ligament attachment

Lateral portion
- Pectin Pubis – laeral to pubic tubercle (pectineus m. attaches here)
- Iliopectineal line- lateral extension pubic crest

38

Inferior rami

o Fused to ischial ramus, so it is sometimes referred to as the “ischiopubic ramus”
o Directed posterolateral from pubic symphysis
o Adductor compartment attachments

39

Adductor compartment attachments to inferior rami

- Gracilis
- Adductor brevis
- Adductor magnus
- Obturator externus

40

3 primary ossification centers

3 primary ossification centers
- Ilium above sciatic notch (8th week)
- Ischium in body (4th month)
- Pubis in superior pubic ramus (4th or 5th month)

ALL meet at acetabulum to fuse at 13 to 14 years

41

5 secondary ossification centers

"PS IC IT And IPA"
- PS = pubic symphysis
- IC = iliac crest
- IT = ischial tuberosity
- And = ASIS
- IPA = inferior portion of acetabulum

42

Sacrum

5 fused sacral vertebrae

43

Parts of sacrum

- Base
- Apex
- Vertebral canal
- Anterior surface
- Posterior surface
- Lateral surface (x2)

44

Base of sacrum

Articulates with 5th lumbar vertebrae
- ALAE = large triangular areas located laterally
- Suports psoas major and lumbosacral trunks
- Anterior 3/4 of each ala are costal processes
- Posterior 1/4 of each ala are transverse processes

45

Apex of sacrum

- Inferior end
- Articulates with coccyx bone

46

Vertebral canal

- Dorsal, ventral rootlets of spinal nerve run through

47

Surfaces of sacrum

- Anterior ("pelvic surface")
- Posterior
- Lateral (x2)

48

Anterior "pelvic surface" of sacrum

- Iliacus origin - superolateral
- Piriformis orgin - segments 1-4

49

Posterior surface of sacrum

- Convex, narrower surface
- Middle sacral crest- midline longitudinal ridge (Rudimentary spinous processes of sacral vertebrae)
- Sacral grooves (laminae of vertebrae, between middle sacral crest and articular crest there is the longitudinal ridge of articular processes)
- Posterior sacral foramina (Lateral to articular crests)

50

Lateral surface of sacrum

- Broad superior, thin inferior
- Auricular surface (covered hyaline cartilage, articulates with ilium at sacroiliac joint)
- Sacral Tuberosity (Posterior to auricular suface, 3 depressions for dorsal sacroiliac ligament)
- Thin Inferior (Gluteus Maximus, Sacrospinous, Sacrotuberous)

51

Ossification of sacrum

o Primary center & 2 epiphyseal plates: body each sacral vertebra
o 2 ossifcation centers: each vertebral arch
o 2 epiphyseal plates: each lateral seface
o 1 ossifcation center: lateral portion each upper 3 vertebrae

52

Coccyx

• 4 verebrae (can range 3-5)
• No laminae, pedicles, spinous processes
• Contains lateral processes for attachment, anterior and posterior surfaces

53

Lateral processes of coccyx for attachment

o Sacrotuberous lig
o sacrospinous lig
o Gluteus Maximus

54

Anterior surface of coccyx

- Concave
- Sacrococcygeal ligament is attached here

55

Posterior surface of coccyx

- Cocygeal coruna, which are a large pair of superior articular processes

56

Ossification centers of the coccyx

- 1st vertebra - 1-4 years
- 2nd vertebra = 5-10 years
- 3rd vertebra = 10-15 years
- 4th vertebra = 15-20 years

57

Male vs female pelvis

Male pelvis
- Larger, heart shaped

Female pelvis
- Wider pubic angle
- Shorter and wider sacrum bone
- Larger pelvic inlet (oval-shaped)
- Smaller, triangular obturator foramina
- Ilia are less sloped
- ASIS is wider
- Siatic notch is wider
- Ischia spines are less pointed