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Difference between primary secondary tertiary and quaternary carbons

The number of carbons attached to that carbon such as tertiary carbon is connected to 3 carbons


What's the the difference between primary secondary and so on hydrogens

Similar to carbons but borrows its numeral from its carbon e.g. Primary carbon has primary hydrogens


What are the types of methane and what determines their names

Methyl, methylene, methine
Determined by the number of H attached


How are halides alcohols and amines numeralized?

Same way are H except for N which is based on the number of C attached to it


What makes something achiral

It has an inversion center or a mirror plane


Are wave functions additive?



How do you find bond order

Total e- in bonding orbitals minus total e- in antibonding orbitals all divided by 2


Can an atom have a formal charge of zero if it hasn't filled up its octect?

Yes in the molecule H-N:--C:--:Ö: the carbon has an FC of 0


How does one solve for the number of stereoisomers of a compound ?

2^n where n is the number of stereocenters/ stereogenic centers


What are the two definitions of acid?

Something that donates H+ (Brønsted/Lowry)

Something that reacts with a Lewis base and accepts its e-s


What are the two definitions of base?

Something that accepts H+ (Brønsted/Lowry)

Something that reacts with a Lewis acid and donates its e-s


The most reactive orbitals of HOMO and LUMO

The most reactive HOMO is the highest HOMO orbital n>p>s while the most reactive LUMO is the lowest LUMO orbital a>p>s


Methodology to figuring out the strongest base

Consider electronegativity and that help stabilize negative charge and more resonance forms help stabilize charges