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Difference between primary secondary tertiary and quaternary carbons

The number of carbons attached to that carbon such as tertiary carbon is connected to 3 carbons

1

What's the the difference between primary secondary and so on hydrogens

Similar to carbons but borrows its numeral from its carbon e.g. Primary carbon has primary hydrogens

2

What are the types of methane and what determines their names

Methyl, methylene, methine
Determined by the number of H attached

3

How are halides alcohols and amines numeralized?

Same way are H except for N which is based on the number of C attached to it

4

What makes something achiral

It has an inversion center or a mirror plane

5

Are wave functions additive?

Yes

6

How do you find bond order

Total e- in bonding orbitals minus total e- in antibonding orbitals all divided by 2

7

Can an atom have a formal charge of zero if it hasn't filled up its octect?

Yes in the molecule H-N:--C:--:Ö: the carbon has an FC of 0

8

How does one solve for the number of stereoisomers of a compound ?

2^n where n is the number of stereocenters/ stereogenic centers

9

What are the two definitions of acid?

Something that donates H+ (Brønsted/Lowry)

Something that reacts with a Lewis base and accepts its e-s

10

What are the two definitions of base?

Something that accepts H+ (Brønsted/Lowry)

Something that reacts with a Lewis acid and donates its e-s

11

The most reactive orbitals of HOMO and LUMO

The most reactive HOMO is the highest HOMO orbital n>p>s while the most reactive LUMO is the lowest LUMO orbital a>p>s

12

Methodology to figuring out the strongest base

Consider electronegativity and that help stabilize negative charge and more resonance forms help stabilize charges