Industrial robot as defined by ISO 8373?
- An automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications.
- Reprogrammable: whose programmed motions or auxiliary functions may be changed without physical alterations;
- Multipurpose: capable of being adapted to a different application with physical alterations;
- Physical alterations: alteration of the mechanical structure or control system except for changes of programming cassettes, ROMs, etc.
- Axis: direction used to specify the robot motion in a linear or rotary mode
5 most common applications?
Material handling, painting, Welding (arc, laser, spot)
5 Most common industries for robots?
Automotive, Elecrical/electronic, Metal, Plastic/chemical, food & beverage.
Drivers for increasing the automation?
Shift to mass customization Global competitiveness Digitalization, reaching industry 4.0 Growing consumer market Energy efficiency technology needed regionalized production
5 countries with highest robot manufacturing density?
Korea, Singapore, Japan, Germany,, Sweden
Absolute accuracy of industrial robot and high precision robots?
> 1mm, >0.2mm
Reasons for inaccurasies in robotics?
- Geometric: inaccuracies in manufacturing of parts of the robot
- Thermal: expansive properties of material used in the robot structure
- Dynamic: internal loading and structural resonance affecting the robot path
- System: improper calibration, sensor inaccuracies, drive train backlash and poorly tuned servos
What does TCP stand for
Tool Centre point
Why is force feedback the preferred solution over metrology?
- Metrology integrated solutions will measure an error to correct in the feedback loop; hence an error occurs in the process.
- Metrology systems risk being obscured by obstacles (workpiece or equipment) in the robot cell
- Force feedback identifies a trend that will cause the error, but can react before the error occurs.
- Force feedback adapt to flexible material in a contact scenario.
- Force feedback is integrated deeper in the control stack of the robot. Metrology feedback is on an external feedback loop with higher latency.
Conclusions on force feedback in drilling?
• Eliminating forces in the plane will eliminate Skidding effects•
Eliminating torques at the TCP will eliminate normality problems
• The Feedback loop reads force data and manipulate the robot to eliminate forces and torques
Conclusions on parallell kinematics?
- Parallel Kinematic Machines have a more geometry dependent kinematics compared serial robots.
- The solution begins with the determination of DOF
- Inverse kinematics is the first step as it is always easier.
- Forward kinematics can rely on numerical approximations.