Which five things does digital manufacturing answer
What to produce and it defines Manufacturing Assemblies
•How to produce, defines operations and sequence
•Wheredefines the factory and the assembly lines
•Whodefines for examples robots machines and workes
•Withdefinesthetools to produce with (handverktyg för att producera
What is digital manufacturing
Is a computer based modelling technique leveraging three-dimensional (3D) visualization and powerful solvers to enable manufacturers to: •design, •simulate, •validate, •optimize, •implement •document
What is PDM and what does it entail?
Product Data Management
•Database to manage product data
•Enables configuration management (different product variants)
•Version management (as product is evolved through new versions)
•Enables advance search techniques for data
What is PLM, and what does it entail?
Production life-cycle manufacturing
•The process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from inception, through engineering design and manufacture, to serve and disposal of manufactured products.
•PLM integrated people, data, processes and business systems and provides a production information backbone for companies and their extended enterprise.
What is MES and what does it entail?
Manufacturing Execution Systems
•Computerized systems used in manufacturing, to track and document the transformation of raw materials to finished goods.
•Provides information that helps manufacturing decision makers understand how current conditions of the plant floor can be optimized to improve product output.
What is ERP and what does it entail?
Enterprise Resource Planning SystemThe integrated management of core business processes, often I real-time and mediated by software and technology, i.e. –Product planning, purchase –Production planning –Manufacturing or service delivery –Marketing and sales –Materials management –Inventory management –Shipping and payment –Finance
How do we plan in an ERP context?
For ERP and operation planners it means:
•How to position which quality of goods to be produced or purchased, how when and by whom.
•Operation planning, by nature, is calendar oriented. It has to take into account relative constraints and absolute constraints (e.g. weekends, shifts, holidays, pauses,…)And there is also:
•Supply chain planning
What is an EBOM?
- A type of bill of materials (BOM) reflecting the product as designed by engineering, referred to as the “as-designed” bill of materials.
- It is the list of items, parts, components, sub-assemblies and assemblies in the product designed by engineering.
- Provides the part number and the quantity needed for each component.
What is MBOM?
MBOM: Manufacturing Bill Of Material
–List of items needed to manufacture the product
–Contains how engineering items relate to each other (Manufacturing Assemblies, Kits…) and additional items that is not included in the EBOM (Engineering Bill Of Material) like glue, oil, protections, packaging, raw….
•MBOM is shared with downstream systems:
–ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) for Procurement, Resources Planning…
–MOM (Manufacturing Operations Management) for scheduling
–MES (Manufacturing Execution System) on the shopfloor
•MBOM provides independency and flexibility for Manufacturing vs Engineering
–By having their own Bill Of Materials with its own items and related lifecycle and effectivity
–By having their own way of organizing and managing the structure which make sense for Manufacturing
What does most robot simulation systems include?
- World model. Define and create a 3D model through inbuilt modeling capability or import models to define the world model.
- Hirarchical link mechanisms. Define and build link mechanisms, which can be part of the simulation as robots or other devices.
- Kinematics and dynamics simulation of robots and other mechanisms.
- Analysis to detect collisions and other events such as configuration solution of a robot manipulator, joint motions of a device or cycle times.
- Translatorof a task program for a robot to a target robot system.
- Calibrationmodule to support varius forms of calibration of models of programs to represent a real physical robot system
How does the workflow for robot simulation and programming look?
*Create CAD objects
*Robot models (cad)
*End effectors and peripherals(cad)
*Calibrate nominal data
**Iteration step below:
Simulate & program
What is joint oriented programming?
–Or “Joint-level” programming
–Recording joint values
–No knowledge about the Cartesian space (coordinate systems)
–Going between points without any regards to the trajectory
What is robot oriented programming?
–Or “Robot-level” programming
–The most common approach in robot programming
–Work with coordinate systems
–Able to move on defined trajectories between points (circles and lines)
–Can be programmed in different coordinate systems (base coordinate system, TCP or user defined coordinate systems)
–Normally developed by the robot manufacturers (ex. RAPID-language for ABB)
what is Object oriented programming
–First degree of the “high-level programming”
–The engineer knows about the geometry of the objects to be assemblied; hence it is intuitive to use symbolic spatial relations.
–The program consist only of events that are specified on a geometrical level
–The system plans how to execute the events
–Need a model of the world, but the system does not “know” about it
•The symbolic relations specifying and assembly can be used for the automatic calculation of possible assembly plans
.•This kind of specification provides and easy to use interactive graphical tool to define any kind of assembly; the user has to deal only with limited and manageable amount of spatial information in a very comfortable manner.
Process oriented programming?
–“Task-level” of high-level programming
–The robot is given a start condition and an end condition
–Resembles instructions given to a human skilled worker.
–Tasks to be executed by the robot is only specified as process modules (drill hole 1)
–The robot know by itself how to execute each process and manages to reach the goal by itself
–Robot can be integrated with databases
–Robot knows about the “World model
Goal oriented programming?
–The robot understands the complete process
–The only thing given is the start-and end state
–Define roles that the system will follow
–This is today common in space applications
Three different programming methods +definition?
Definition:“The robot itself is used to generate the robot program”
Definition:“Programming of robot is done on another CPU, not the one on the robot
Definition:“Work cycle is taught to robot by moving the manipulator through the required motion cycle and simultaneously entering the program into the controller memory for later playback.”
Static vs Dynamic?
Those models that are the representation of a system at a single point in time are called static A dynamic model describes the behaviour of the system through time
Deterministic vs. Stochastic
Deterministic simulation models are used when the random variation in the system being modelled is not of concern because it does not affect the result and cannot influence the decisions to be taken.Those models that do not ignore random variation in the system being modeled are called stochastic.
Continuous vs. Discrete
When the state of the modeled system changes continuously over time we have a continuous model In a discrete model the change occur only at separate points in time