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Flashcards in Other Grammar Deck (45):
1

How to express HOW LONG someone HAS DONE something

Hace + time expression + que + present tense verb
Ex: I have taught Spanish for five years.
Hace cinco años que yo enseño español.

2

How to express HOW LONG AGO some one did something

Hace + time expression + que + preterit tense verb
Ex: I started teaching five years ago.
Hace cinco año que yo empecé a enseñar.

3

HOW LONG SINCE someone has done something

Hace + time expression + que + no + present tense verb
Ex: It has been a year since we have seen him.
Hace un año que no lo vamos.

4

Impersonal Se

Used when subject is unknown, irrelevant, or generalized
Se + él form verb + noun -> if noun is singular
Se + ellos form verb + noun -> if noun is plural
NOT USED WITH REFLEXIVE: use uno in place of se.
Ex: one goes to bed.
Uno se acuesta.

5

When to use PARA

Place going towards
Deadline/time limit
In order to
Purpose with infinitive
Suitability
Use with noun
Action that caused emotion
Considering/for
Opinion

6

When to use POR

Place of movement
Temporary stop
Action duration
Still/yet to be done
Inclination towards something
Gratitude/apology
Cause/reason/because of/due to
Motive
Price or exchange
Vague position
Periods in day
Done by someone
For sake of/on behalf of/instead of/in place of/per

7

Reflexive verb conjugation

Choose: reflexive pronouns: Me, te, se, nos, se
Use: place where it needs to be in sentence
Conjugate: conjugate verb
Ex: acostarse
I went to bed
Acostarme
Me acostar
Me acosté

8

Reflexive uses

Self contained: I went to bed. Me acuesto.
Did to self: I talk to myself. Me hablo.
Get/become/grow + adjective: I got sick. Me enfermé.

9

Perfect and imperfect progressive tenses

Used to emphasize the activity that is currently happening.
Used helping verb estar and verb ending in ado/ido.
ALL IF VERBS STEM CHANGE: e->i and o->u
Present Progressive:
Estoy/ás/á/amos/án
AR ending verb -> ando
ER/IR ending verb -> iendo
Ex: Hablar -> hablando Comer -> comiendo
Imperfect progressive:
Estaba/abas/aba/ábamos/aban
Estar conjugation is only difference.

10

Affirmative imperative conjugation

Present tú form
Drop the s
Ex: Comer
Comes
Come
PRONOUNS ADDED ON END
Hablarse -> Háblame

11

Affirmative imperative irregulars

Hacer -> has
Tener -> ten
Venir -> ven
Salir -> sal
Poner -> pon
Decir -> di
Ir -> ve
Irse -> vite
Ser -> se

12

Negative imperative conjugation

No + infinitive verb
No + Yo present tense
No + Drop o
No + Add opposite ending (AR -> es and ER/IR -> as)
Ex: No comer
No como
No comas
PRONOUNS IN FRONT
No te preocupes.

13

Possessive adjectives

Mí/mis
Tu/tus
Su/sus
Nuestro/a/os/as
Su/sus
USED WITH NOUN
Ex: My house
Mí casa

14

Clarifying Possessive Adjectives (su/sus)

Use a de phrase
Ex: el de él
El matches gender and number of noun being owned
Él matches the number and gender of people owning it.
¿Te gustan la libros de Bob or la de Betty y Dan?
Me gustan sus libros. (Bob's or Betty and Dan's?)
Me gustan los de ellos. (Clarifies Betty and Dan's)

15

Demonstratives

This and these have ts!
Near Apart Distant
This That That
These Those Those
Este Ese Aquel
Esta Esa Aquella
Estos Esos Aquellos
Estas Esas Aquellas

16

Imperfect conjugation

AR:
Aba/abas/aba/ábamos/aban

ER/IR:
Ía/ías/ía/íamos/ían

17

Conditional irregulars

Podría poder
Pondría poner
Haría hacer
Diría decir
Querría querer
Sabría saber
Vendría venir
Saldría salir
Tendría tener

18

Present perfect

Expresses an action that happened at an unspecified time before the present moment. Ex: the man has left
Haber+___ado/ido (or irreg)
He, has, ha, hemos, han

19

Conditional

Would= ________ría/ías/ía/íamos/ían

20

Abrir (past participle irregular)

Abierto

21

Decir (past participle irregular)

Dicho

22

Escribir (past participle irregular)

Escrito

23

Hacer (past participle irregular)

Hecho

24

Poner (past participle irregular)

Puesto

25

Romper (past participle irregular)

Roto

26

Volver (past participle irregular)

Vuelto

27

Ver (past participle irregular)

Visto (seen)
Vista (view)

28

Cubrir (past participle irregular)

Cubierto

29

Describir (past participle irregular)

Descrito

30

Descubir (past participle irregular)

Descubierto

31

Devolver (past participle irregular)

Revuelto

32

Freír (past participle irregular)

Frito

33

Imponer (past participle irregular)

Impuesto

34

Morir (past participle irregular)

Muerto

35

Resolver (past participle irregular)

Resuelto

36

Revolver (past participle irregular)

Revuelto

37

Satesfecer (past participle irregular)

Satisfecho

38

Componer (past participle irregular)

Compuesto

39

Pluperfect

Expresses an action that happened at an unspecified time before another past action. Ex: He had left before I arrived.
Haber+___ado/ido (or irreg)
Había, habías, había, habíamos, habían

40

Imperfect

Aba/abas/aba/ábamos/aban
Ía/ías/ía/íamos/ían
No stem change
Irregulars:
Ser: era/eras/era/éramos/eran
Ver: veía/veías/veía/veíamos/veían
Ir: iba/ibas/iba/íbamos/iban

41

True Passive

Subject receives the action, it does not do it. Agent is stated, implied, or well known.
Subject+ser+past participle

42

Past participle acting as an adjective

Resulting condition/condition of subject.
Estar+past participle

43

Present Participles

Infinitive ar ending replaced by ando/ er/ir ending replaced with iendo.
Part of progressive tense: I am working on that right now.
Verb clause set off by commas: the boy, chewing his gum, walked away.
Varying use from English: The crying baby... becomes the baby that was/is crying... Bebe que lloraba/llora...

44

Gerund

Replaces to ____ forms, follows a preposition, and a noun.
Ex: Walking is a fun thing. Andar es una cosa divertida.
Ex: He was happy from singing. Él estaba contento de cantar.
INFINITIVES

45

Progressive Tenses

Estar(in chosen tense)+_______ando/iendo/yendo
Present: emphasis action that is currently happening
Imperfect: emphasis action that was currently happening
Future: emphasis action that will be currently happening
Conditional: emphasis what would(n’t) be what is currently happening
Present Perfect: emphasis what has been currently happening
Pluperfect: emphasis what had been currently happening

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