What is the essential feature of antisocial personality disorder?
a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood
What are the B, C, and D criteria for antisocial personality disorder?
B. the individual is at least 18 years of age
C. there is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before age 15
D. the occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or a manic episode
How many A criteria does antisocial personality have and how many must an individual display in order to have an accurate diagnosis?
seven; three or more
What are criteria A1 and A2 of antisocial personality disorder?
A1. failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest
A2. deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure
What are the A3 and A4 criteria for antisocial personality disorder?
A3. impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
A4. irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults
What are the A5 and A6 criteria for antisocial personality disorder?
A5. reckless disregard for safety of self or others
A6. consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations
What is the A7 criterion for antisocial personality disorder?
A7. lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another
What disorders are associated with antisocial personality disorder?
personality features overlapping with borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders
How can antisocial personality disorder be differentiated from substance-related disorder?
signs of antisocial personality disorder must have been present in childhood and continued into adulthood but there may be a dual diagnosis if both disorders were present during that time period
How can antisocial personality disorder be differentiated from narcissistic personality disorder?
narcissistic personality disorder does not include characteristics of impulsivity, aggression, and deceit
individuals with antisocial personality disorder may not be as needy of admiration and envy of others
narcissists usually lack conduct disorder in childhood/criminal behavior in adulthood
How can antisocial personality disorder be differentiated from histrionic personality disorder?
histrionics tend to be more exaggerated in their emotions and do not typically engage in antisocial behaviors
How can antisocial personality disorder be differentiated from borderline personality disorder?
borderlines manipulate to gain nurturance, but antisocials manipulate others to gain profit, power, or some other material gratification
antisocials are less emotionally unstable and more aggressive than borderlines
How can antisocial personality disorder be differentiated from paranoid personality disorder?
Antisocial behavior in paranoid personality disorder is due to desire for revenge, whereas in antisocial personality disorder, it is due to a desire for personal gain or exploitation of others.
How can antisocial personality disorder be differentiated from adult antisocial behavior?
Adult antisocial behavior may warrant clinical attention and share features of antisocial personality disorder, but cannot be diagnosed as APD unless personality traits are inflexible, maladaptive, and persistent, and cause significant funtional impairment or subjective distress.
What is the essential feature of narcissistic personality disorder?
a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy that begins by early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts
How many criteria are there for narcissistic personality disorder and how many of them must an individual meet to be diagnosed accurately?
nine; five or more
What are criteria 1 and 2 for narcissistic personality disorder?
1. has grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements)
2. is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love
What are criteria 3 and 4 for narcissistic personality disorder?
3. believes he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions)
4. requires excessive admiration
What are criteria 5 and 6 for narcissistic personality disorder?
5. has a sense of entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations
6. is interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends
What are criteria 7 and 8 of narcissistic personality disorder?
7. lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others
8. is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her
What is criterion 9 of narcissistic personality disorder?
9. shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes
What is the essential feature of avoidant personality disorder?
a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation that begins in early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts
How many criteria are there for avoidant personality disorder and how many are required for diagnosis?
seven; four or more
What are criteria 1 and 2 for avoidant personality disorder?
1. avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection
2. is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked
What are criteria 3 and 4 for avoidant personality disorder?
3. shows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculed
4. is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations
What are criteria 5 and 6 for avoidant personality disorder?
5. is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy
6. views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others
What is criterion 7 for avoidant personality disorder?
7. is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing
What is the essential feature of dependent personality disorder?
a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation
How many criteria are there for dependent personality disorder and how many are required for diagnosis?
eight; five or more
What are criteria 1 and 2 for dependent personality disorder?
1. has difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others
2. needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her life
What are criteria 3 and 4 for dependent personality disorder?
3. has difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval
4. has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on his/her own (lack of self confidence in judgment or abilities)
What are criteria 5 and 6 for dependent personality disorder?
5. goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, to the point of volunteering to do things that are unpleasant
6. feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for himself or herself
What are criteria 7 and 8 for dependent persnality disorder?
7. urgently seeks another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends
8. is unrealistically preoccupied with fears of being left to take care of himself or herself
What is the essential feature of OCPD?
a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency
How many criteria are there for OCPD and how many are required for diagnosis?
eight; five or more
What are criteria 1 and 2 for OCPD?
1. preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost
2. shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion
What are criteria 3 and 4 for OCPD?
3. is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships
4. is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values
What are criteria 5 and 6 for OCPD?
5. is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value
6. is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things
What are criteria 7 and 8 for OCPD?
7. adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes
8. shows rigidity and stubbornness