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Impact biomechanics TME196 > Other questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Other questions Deck (34):
1

What mechanical properties does skin have?

Nonlinear, anisotropic, viscoelastic and various fiber orientation

2

What are the mechanical properties of bone?

Anisotropic, inhomogenous, nonlinear and viscoelastic

3

What kind of fibrous joints exists?

Sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses

4

What kind of cartilaginous?? joints exists?

Synchonodroses, symphyses

5

What functions does muscle have?

Movement, protection, posture, stabilises and heat

6

What functions does the skeleton have?

Support, protection, movement, mineral storage and blood cell formation

7

What is the function of skin?

Defence from external, control water loss, insulation, temperature regulation

8

Describe difference between tendons and ligaments

Tendon: between muscle and bone, more collagen than elastin
Ligaments: between bones, more elastin than tendon

9

What is connective tissue?

Binding and support: Tendon and ligament, Cartilage and bone
Protection: Skin, fibrous capsules
Insulation: Fat
Transportation: Blood

10

What kind of muscles exists?

Skeletal (Largest muscle group)
Cardiac (Heart)
Smooth (Inner organs)

11

What are the most common VRU injuries?

Head, legs and chest

12

Give examples of injury reduction strategies for VRUs

Reduce aggressiveness of front, reduce exposure, active hood, A-pillar airbag, reduce speed

13

What is the most exposed area for elderly?

Thorax

14

What are the three different injury mechanism for the thorax?

Elastic, Viscous and Inertial

15

Give examples of general injury reduction strategies

Exposure control, crash prevention, behaviour changes, injury control, post injury management

16

What does NIC take into account?

Relative speed and acc between head and neck

17

What is the severity of WAD determined by?

Closing speed, vehicle masses, bumper stiffness and bumper elasticity

18

What does Nij take into account?

Extension and flexion in tension and compression in the neck

19

What is pneumonia?

Alveoli flooded with fluid

20

What can injury risk function be used for?

Relate input of load measurement to failure risk

21

Mention issues with crash data

Access limited, need to understand datasources and sampling, variable definitions, underreporting (can bias result)

22

What are the functions of the brain stem?

Regulates heart beat, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, digestion

23

How many fatalities occur in traffic each year?

1.24 million

24

What are the functions of muscles?

Produce forces, heat, protection, posture and stabilises

25

What is left censoring vs right censoring?

Left=data point is below a certain value but is unknown by how much=injury test (can also be exact)
Right=data point is above a certain value but is unknown by how much=non-injury test
Interval censoring=data point is somewhere on an interval between two values

26

What is crashworthiness=

Ability of a vehicle to absorb energy and distribute this over time
Ability of the vehicle to keep occupant compartment intact

27

What is the main principle for restraining a car occupant?

The “stiffness” of the restraint must not exceed that of the occupant’s body region it restrains during a collision

28

What are the two approaches to estimate crash severity?

Momentum and energy

29

What is compatibility of vehicles influenced by (in frontal crashes)?

Vehicle mass, structural interaction and compartment strength

30

What are the phases during a VRU accident?

Primary impact, flight phase, secondary impact and sliding phase

31

What are the functions of epithelial tissue?

Protection, absorption, filtration, transcellular transport, secretion, excretion and sensory reception

32

What is the most severe skull fracture?

Basilar

33

What types of accidents are thorax injuries common in?

Side and frontal

34

What organs are most easily injured?

Solid