Flashcards in Other questions Deck (34):
What mechanical properties does skin have?
Nonlinear, anisotropic, viscoelastic and various fiber orientation
What are the mechanical properties of bone?
Anisotropic, inhomogenous, nonlinear and viscoelastic
What kind of fibrous joints exists?
Sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
What kind of cartilaginous?? joints exists?
What functions does muscle have?
Movement, protection, posture, stabilises and heat
What functions does the skeleton have?
Support, protection, movement, mineral storage and blood cell formation
What is the function of skin?
Defence from external, control water loss, insulation, temperature regulation
Describe difference between tendons and ligaments
Tendon: between muscle and bone, more collagen than elastin
Ligaments: between bones, more elastin than tendon
What is connective tissue?
Binding and support: Tendon and ligament, Cartilage and bone
Protection: Skin, fibrous capsules
What kind of muscles exists?
Skeletal (Largest muscle group)
Smooth (Inner organs)
What are the most common VRU injuries?
Head, legs and chest
Give examples of injury reduction strategies for VRUs
Reduce aggressiveness of front, reduce exposure, active hood, A-pillar airbag, reduce speed
What is the most exposed area for elderly?
What are the three different injury mechanism for the thorax?
Elastic, Viscous and Inertial
Give examples of general injury reduction strategies
Exposure control, crash prevention, behaviour changes, injury control, post injury management
What does NIC take into account?
Relative speed and acc between head and neck
What is the severity of WAD determined by?
Closing speed, vehicle masses, bumper stiffness and bumper elasticity
What does Nij take into account?
Extension and flexion in tension and compression in the neck
What is pneumonia?
Alveoli flooded with fluid
What can injury risk function be used for?
Relate input of load measurement to failure risk
Mention issues with crash data
Access limited, need to understand datasources and sampling, variable definitions, underreporting (can bias result)
What are the functions of the brain stem?
Regulates heart beat, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, digestion
How many fatalities occur in traffic each year?
What are the functions of muscles?
Produce forces, heat, protection, posture and stabilises
What is left censoring vs right censoring?
Left=data point is below a certain value but is unknown by how much=injury test (can also be exact)
Right=data point is above a certain value but is unknown by how much=non-injury test
Interval censoring=data point is somewhere on an interval between two values
What is crashworthiness=
Ability of a vehicle to absorb energy and distribute this over time
Ability of the vehicle to keep occupant compartment intact
What is the main principle for restraining a car occupant?
The “stiffness” of the restraint must not exceed that of the occupant’s body region it restrains during a collision
What are the two approaches to estimate crash severity?
Momentum and energy
What is compatibility of vehicles influenced by (in frontal crashes)?
Vehicle mass, structural interaction and compartment strength
What are the phases during a VRU accident?
Primary impact, flight phase, secondary impact and sliding phase
What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
Protection, absorption, filtration, transcellular transport, secretion, excretion and sensory reception
What is the most severe skull fracture?
What types of accidents are thorax injuries common in?
Side and frontal