others Flashcards Preview

Immunology > others > Flashcards

Flashcards in others Deck (90):
1

Some tumor cells can escape immune system surveillance by ... (and example)

modulation --> ex: internalizing the surface antigen so that it no longer presents a target for immune attack

2

tumors and antibodies

Tumor antigens can stimulate the development of specific antibodies: a. some are cytotoxic, but others called a. blocking and enhance tumor growth (perhaps by blocking recognition of tumor antibodies by host)

3

T cell tolerance - central vs peripheral according to definition

central tolerance --> tolerance to self antigens within tha thymus
peripheral tolerance --> tolerance acquired outside the thymus

4

beside Thymus, AIRE also act at (where and why)

in the peripheral lymphoid organs (such as spleen and lymph nodes) where it contributes to peripheral tolerance

5

Peripheral tolerance is necessary because

some self antigens are not expressed in thymus

6

Clonal ingorance?

self reactive lymphocyte ignore self antigens (either by physical separation (ex. BBB,) or because self antigens are in small amount)

7

Clona anergy - the failure of constimulatory signal most often occurs when

is an insufficient inflammatory respomse at the site of infection

8

types of B-cell tolerance (and location)

1. clonal deletion (bone marrow)
2. clonal anergy (periphery)

9

Whether an antigen will iduce tolerance rather than immunologic response:

1. maturity of immun system of the host (neonatal do not respond well to foreign antigens
2. structure and dose of antigen (simple molecules induce toleranc more rapidly, and very high or very low doses of antigens may result in tolerance)

10

insulin-resistant diabetes - antibodies against

insulin receptor

11

hypersensitivity reactions with antibodies (and which antibodies)

type I --> IgE
type II --> IgG or IgM
type III --> IgG

12

hypersensitivity reactions 1st vs subsequent contacts

the 1st contact of the individuals with the antigen sensitize, the subsequent elicit the allergic respond

13

hypersensitivity reaction type I - complement

not involved

14

Non allergic respond to allergens

produce IgG

15

which clinical manifestations occurs in hypersensitivity type 1 depends in

1. the route of entry
2. the location of the mast cells bearing IgE
ex. (air --> hey fever, food --> diarrhe)

16

hypersensitivity reaction type 1 - disease according to rout of entry

1. lung --> asthma
2. nose and eyes --> rhinitis, conjunctivitis, hey fever
3. skin --> eczema, urticaria
4. intestinal tract --> allergic gastroenteropathy
5. Systemic --> anaphylaxis

17

the MCCs of anaphylaxis

1. food such as peanuts and shellfish
2. bee venom
3. drugs such as penicillin

18

atopic disorders exhibit strong familial predisposition and are associated with

elevated IgE levels

19

hypersensitivity reaction type 2 - antibodies

IgG or IgM

20

hypersensitivity reaction type 4 - cells

1. Th
2. macrophages
3. T cytotoxic

21

Prozone phenomenon is a

false negative response resulting from high antibody titer which interferes with formation of antigen- antibody

22

the pathway that mostcommonly activate complement the first time that a person is exposed to a bug

lectin and alternative (because no antibody)

23

a complement regultion beside C1 esterase and DAF

regulation of alternative pathway is mediated by the binding of factor H to C3b and cleavage of this complex by factor I (a protease)

24

An extra role of C3b

binds to its receptor in the surface of activated B cells --> enhances antibodies in by the B cells that are activated alone

25

measles and CMC vs immune system (and examples)

they can suppress cell-mediated against other microorganisms
measles infection in people with TB --> PPD (-) (suppression of il-12 by macrophagea)

26

CMV, VZV, HSV-2, - latent in

CMV --> mononuclear cells
VZV --> dorsal root or trigemina ganglia
HSV-2 --> sacral ganglia

27

antibody - primary response

longer lag period --> 7 - 10 days (can be longer depending on the nature and dose of the antigen)
IgM

28

antibody - secondary response

IgM produced similar to the primary, but much larger amount of IgG is produced and tend to persist much longer

29

affinity maturation is the process by which

B cells produce antibodies with increased affinity for antigen during the course of an immune response

30

The first line of defence against microorganisms

intact skin and mucous membranes

31

innate humoral immunity

complement and neutrophils

32

antibodies in Th independent produced

only IgM because --> no IL-4,5 --> no class switch

33

immunity - age

less than optimal in newborn and elderly

34

Defesins?

highly positively charged peptides that create pores in the membranes of bacteria and thereby kill them

35

causes of high calcium-phosphate mediated metastatic calcification

1. chronic renal failure with 2ry hyperparathyroidism
2. long term dialysis
3. calciphylaxis
4. warfarin

36

causes of high calcium mediated metastatic calcification

1. 1ry heperparathyroidism
2. sarcoidosis
3. hypervitaminosis D

37

CD54

ICAM-1

38

CD55

DAF

39

CD106

VCAM-1

40

CD31

PECAM-1

41

Free radicals injury is initiated by

1. radiation exposure (eg. cancer therapy)
2. metabolism of drugs (phase 1)
3. REDOX
4. Nitric oxide
5. transition metals
6. WBC oxidative burst

42

CD95

Fas (receptor)

43

B - cell immunodeficiency - live vaccines

contraindicated

44

IgA transcytosis

IgA dimers bind to there polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) found on the basolateral surface of intestinal epithelial cells + undegro trancytosis --> as they are released in the lumen, the pIgR stay attached

45

xanthine oxidase deficiency

very low uric acid
- renal calculi due to insolubility of xanthine at urine pH

46

Giardia lambila - histology of organism + of intestine

organism: pear shaped with multiple flagella + 2 nuclei (owl's eues). The cysts contain up to 4 nuclei
intestine: villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia

47

cGMP has role in physiological process such as

SMCs relaxation + retinal phototransduction

48

defected IFN-γ signaling pathway --> .....(manegment)

lifelong antimycobacterial agents

49

PD1 role

Programmed death receptor (PD1) and its lignat downregulates the immune agaist tumor cells by inhibiting cytotoxic T cells. Many types of Cancer evade the immune system by increasing expression of PD1 ligant
Monoclonal antibodies agaist PD-1 help prevent T cell inhibition + promote apoptosis of tumor cells
CTLA-4 has a similar role --> bind + inhibit B7

50

other chemotactic agents

n-formylated peptides
5-HETE

51

protein that bind + inhibit B7

CTLA-4

52

anaphylaxis - time to initiate

- seconds to minutes after intravascular exposure (eg. IV medication , insect stings)
- up to 2 hours with orally ingested antigens

53

marker of Mast cells activation

tryptase

54

binded IgE to mast cells --> bind to antigen --> .... (next step)

aggregation of receptors -> non-receptor tyrosine kinase --> degranulation + release

55

examples of receptor internalization

1. excessive neurotransmitter stimulation
2. receptor mediated endocytosis (eg. transferrin receptor for iron + LDL receptor)

56

anti-Rh - type of antibody

IgG (anti-D) --> opsonization

57

CD21 - normal function

receptor of C3b complement

58

palms + soles maculopalular rash after transplantation graft vs host disease

graft vs host disease

59

Most frequtnely affected organs by graft vs host disease

1. skin --> palms + soles maculopalular rash (desquamate in severe cases)
2. GI --> diarhea, intestinal bleeding + abd pain
3. liver --> abdominal liver function test
(if it is from liver transplantation, liver is not affected)

60

thimic negative selection - interaction with which cells

thymic medullary epithelial cells
+ dendritic cells

61

CD7

multi-chain complex marker

62

PPSV in <2 age

not immunnogenic because their relatively immature humoral antibody response

63

candida - low T cells vs low neutrophils

low T --> superficial candida infection
low neutrophil --> systemic candida infection

64

hyper IgM syndrome - mchanism

MC: defective CD40L on Th cells (XR)
Rare: defective CD40 on B cells (AR)

65

cardiolipine is found in

inner mitoch membrane

66

lupus anticoagulant - pt/ptt

increased PTT and/or PT that is not corrected with 1:1 fresh plasma

67

Bloom syndrome

generalized chromosomal instability

68

bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in sarcoidosis - CD4/8 ratio

more than 2

69

contact dermatitis - cd4 vs cd8

it depends on the etiologic agent

70

similar to SCID but not?

congenital HIV

71

Langhans cells?

(aka: Pirogov-Langhans cell)
large cells found in granulomatous conditions.

72

IgM - complement activation mechanism

IgM is able to activate complement only after antigen binding (conformation alternation)

73

melanocytes - shape?

dendritic processes that intercalate between the remaining cells of the epidermis

74

lecthinase (C. perfinges) action

phospholipase C --> platelet agregation --> vasocclusion --> ischemic necrosis of affected tissues

75

age for influenza vaccination

older than 6

76

1. HBeAg in pregnancy
2. management of infants born by HBV othes
3. infant with HBV from mother - chronicity

1. increases the risk of vertical transmission (to 95%), if HBeAg negative --> only 20%
2. passively immunized at birth with hepatitis B immun globulin, followed by active immunization with recombinant HBV vaccine
3. chance of progression to chronicity is 90%

77

poison ivy, oak, sumac - mechanism of contact dermatitis

produce urushiol --> hapten --> rash --> often linear streaks as the patients walked in the plants

78

major adaptive immune mechanism agaist influenza virus

antibodies against hemaglutin

79

eosinophils mediated defence against parasites

antibody-depended cell-mediated cytotoxicity
(IgE or IgG) --> binding --> secretion of ROS + Major basic protein

80

Bare lymphocyte syndrome

immunodeficiency resulting from a defect in expression of HLA class II antigens on the surface of antigen presenting cells

81

Fibroblasts - caseating granouloma

fibroblast proliferation + collagen production contribute to caseating granuloma formation

82

young people infected with N. meningitis - IgA levels

if very high leves of IgA --> increased risk for disseminated disease due to cover of IgG/IgM binding sites by IgA

83

reactive arthritis - skin

keratoderma blennorrhagicum (hyperkeratotic vesicles on palms + soles)
circinate balanitis (superpiginous annular dermatitis of the glans of penis

84

LAD 3?

similar to to type 1 but causes severe, recurrent, bactrial infections, delayed separation of the umbilical cord, and bleeding complications (affected beta 3 integrins on platelets)

85

Peneath granular cells

small intestine cells
release α-defesin + lysozime --> immune system

86

golimumab

anti - tnf a

87

Bortezomib - mechanism of action

binds + inhibits the 26S proteasome
In MM, it can facilitate apoptosis by preventing degredation of pro-apoptotic factors

88

diagostic test for chronic granulomatous disease (and explain)

1. Nitroblue tetrazolium: involves adding NB to a sample of patients neutrophis --> normal neutrophils produce ROS that can reduce the yellow NBT to blue formazan
2. Dihydrorhodamine: production of superode radicals by measuring the conversion of DHR to rhodamine, a green compound detected by flow cytometry

89

Nef and Tat genes

both HIV genes:
Tat plays a role in viral replication
Nef decreases expression of MHC class I protein on the surface of infected cells

90

inf α + β against protein syntheses in virus infected cells

transcription of antiviral enzymes capable of halting protein synthesis such as RNase L + protein Kinase R (inactivates elF-2, inhibiting translation initiation)
ACTIVE ONLY IN dsRNA virus which form in infected cells