Flashcards in OVERALL Deck (86)
agencies and offices devoted to carrying out the tasks of government consistent with the law.
an individual unit of government responsible for carrying out the tasks delegated to it by congress or the president in accordance with the law.
Departments within the executive branch that encompass many of the agencies that implement federal policy. Secretaries appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate are given the responsibility of leading these departments and advising the president.
an agency that exists outside the cabinet departments and is run with a larger degree of independence from presidential influence.
a federally owned corporation that generates revenue by providing a public service, operating much like a private business and with a higher degree of autonomy than a cabinet department or an independent agency.
when government agencies depart from executing policy consistent with the ideological preferences of Congress or the president so as to execute policy consistent with their own ideological preferences.
when an ideological shift in elected branches creates disparity between the way an agency executes policy and the way new members of Congress or a new president believes the agency ought to execute policy.
when regulatory agencies are beholden to the organizations or interests they are supposed to regulate.
the body of law created by executive agencies with the purpose of refining general law passed in legislation.
the process by which government agencies provide details on how laws passed by elected officials will be implemented.
the contracting of private companies by the government to conduct work that was formerly done by government agencies.
government bureaucratic reform that emphasizes market-based principles of management that are common to the private sector.
an agreement whereby the government hires a company or an organization to carry out certain tasks on its behalf.
money that the government provides to individuals or organizations to perform tasks in the public's interest.
congressional oversight that relies on interest groups and citizens to inform representatives of unwarranted action.
congressional oversight that consists of actively monitoring agencies through routine inspection.
the authority of the judiciary to decide whether a law or any other government action is constitutional.
federal court supremacy
the arrangement based on the supremacy clause ini the Constitution that gives federal courts the authority to overturn state court decisions and to decide on the constitutionality of state laws and actions.
a case in which the government prosecutes a person for a crime against society.
a case in which at least one person sues another person for violating the civil code of conduct.
The official status of a litigant who is entitled to have his or her case decided by the court.
a lawsuit in which the plaintiff or defendant is a collective group of individuals.
a system of jurisprudence in which the judiciary has the authority to determine how the law is to be interpreted. Under this system, legal precedent established by judges informs future decisions.
a system of jurisprudence in which authoritative documents determine how the law is to be interpreted. Under this system, legal codes and statutes (and not judges) inform future decisions.
the legal principle that requires judges to respect the decisions of past court cases.
the laws passed by legislatures, or administrative agencies empowered by legislatures, and the court decisions interpreting those laws.
the collection of fundamental rules for making statutory laws and regulations, their enforcement, and the court decisions interpreting those rules.
writ of certiorari
An order by the Supreme Court directing an inferior court to deliver records of a case to be reviewed, which effectively means the justices of the Court have decided to hear the case.
the status of a case in which further legal proceedings would have no impact on one or both parties.