Flashcards in Oxidation of Fatty Acids Deck (17):
Discuss how we get fatty acids inside to do fatty acid oxidation
In the cytosol of the cell, long chain fatty acids are activated by ATP and coenzyme A to make fatty acyl-CoA. Short chains do this too, but can do it inside the mitochondria. We use 2 ATP to do this first step.
But fatty acyl CoA still can't cross the membrane. Now that it is activated though, it can react with carnitine to make fatty acyl carnitine, which goes through the membrane via carnitine acyltransferase I.
Inside the inner membrane, it reforms fatty acyl CoA and carnitine goes back outside via CAT II.
What inhibits the carnitine shuttle?
Malonyl-CoA, an intermediate in fatty acid synthesis. That way we aren't just making fatty acid to immediately destroy it.
So now we have this fatty acyl CoA inside of the mitochondria. What now?
We begin beta oxidation.
Right by the carbon double donded to oxygen is the alpha carbon, and it is the one we are targeting first. Recall that the point of these steps is to make energy, and we only have a few. So right from the start, we are doing to oxidize the fatty acyl CoA with an acyl CoA dehydrogenase to turn FAD to FADH2.
This gives us trans fatty anoyl CoA
So right off the bat we went ahead and broke a double bond at the alpha carbon. Why? What next?
We need to put a double bond between the alpha and beta carbon to make it more ready to except an O at the beta carbon (Beta oxidation is the key here).
Now that there is a double bond, we can add water across it with enoyl CoA Hydratase to turn our trans fatty enoyl CoA to a Beta Hydroxy acyl CoA, which guess what, has an OH on its beta carbon now.
So now we have put OH on the Beta carbon, what next?
Remember, the point is to make energy. Oxidizing the Beta hydroxy acyl CoA with Beta hydroxy acyl CoA dehydrogenase (we are getting really original with these names now, keep up), we turn NAD+ to NADH and our Beta hydroxy to a Beta keto acyl CoA.
What do we do with this Beta keto acyl CoA?
This thing is garbage, we'll break it up to make it more useful.
Take Beta keto thiolase and turn it into a shorter (minus two) fatty acyl CoA and an acetyl CoA.
So with a big even carbon like Palmitate, how many ATP will we make?
Palmitate means 16 carbons, so:
1. 16 to 14
2. to 12
3. to 10
4. to 8
5. to 6
6. to 4
7. to 2 (both acetyl CoAs)
So we did 7 rounds, so 7 FADH2 and 7 NADH, and 8 Acetyl CoA - 2 ATP that we needed to turn the palmitate in the very first go around to fatty acyl CoA
7*1.5 + 7*2.5 + 8*10 ATP (per TCA cycle) makes 108 - 2 to start up = 106
What do we do about odd chained fatty acids?
They go through the same thing, but in the end they make an acetyl CoA (2C) and a propionyl CoA (3C) which we can turn into glucose!
What do we do with Very Long Chain Fatty Acids
The process differs for these guys
- No FADH2
- O2 is used
- H2O2 is formed
Then since they are shorter they go to the mitochondria from the peroxisomes to do normal beta oxidation.
Defect in peroxisomal biogenesis that leads to accumulation of VLCFA in tissues, affecting the liver and the brain. We see elevated C26 and 26:1 in plasma.
The patients tend to have neural and optic abnormalities
Alpha hydroxylase deficiency causing a high level of phytanic acid from plants to build up in tissues, leading to neural issues.
Treat with reducing leafy intake.
What are the four main fatty acid components of our diet and what are there structures?
Palmitate - C16:0
Stearate - C18:0
Oleate - C18:1 Delta 9
Linoleate - C18:2 Delta 9, 12
What carries FAs in the blood?
Albumin carries it, drops it off, it travels to the mitochondrial matrix.
What are the fatty acid chain length names?
VLCFA = 20+
LCFA = 12 - 20
MCFA = 6 - 12
What is the problem with doing Beta Oxidation of Unsaturated FAs?
May create an intermediate with a C=C in the C3-C4 position rather than the 2-3.
Cis double bonds are not recognized by enoyl CoA hydratase
What enzymes do we use to work through the problems we face with unsaturated fatty acid beta oxidation?
Enoyl CoA Isomerase - Puts the 3-4 C=C at 2-3 C=C
2,4 dienoyl reductase, which uses NADPH - Takes a C=C at 2-3 and C=C 4-5 and turns it into one C=C 3-4